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    ut-mssql

    6.2.3 • Public • Published

    node-mssql

    Microsoft SQL Server client for Node.js

    NPM Version NPM Downloads Travis CI Appveyor CI Join the chat at https://gitter.im/patriksimek/node-mssql

    Supported TDS drivers:

    Installation

    npm install mssql
    

    Quick Example

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    async () => {
        try {
            // make sure that any items are correctly URL encoded in the connection string
            await sql.connect('mssql://username:password@localhost/database')
            const result = await sql.query`select * from mytable where id = ${value}`
            console.dir(result)
        } catch (err) {
            // ... error checks
        }
    }

    If you're on Windows Azure, add ?encrypt=true to your connection string. See docs to learn more.

    Parts of the connection URI should be correctly URL encoded so that the URI can be parsed correctly.

    Documentation

    Examples

    Configuration

    Drivers

    Connections

    Requests

    Transactions

    Prepared Statements

    Other

    Examples

    Config

    const config = {
        user: '...',
        password: '...',
        server: 'localhost', // You can use 'localhost\\instance' to connect to named instance
        database: '...',
    }

    Async/Await

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    (async function () {
        try {
            let pool = await sql.connect(config)
            let result1 = await pool.request()
                .input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)
                .query('select * from mytable where id = @input_parameter')
                
            console.dir(result1)
        
            // Stored procedure
            
            let result2 = await pool.request()
                .input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)
                .output('output_parameter', sql.VarChar(50))
                .execute('procedure_name')
            
            console.dir(result2)
        } catch (err) {
            // ... error checks
        }
    })()
     
    sql.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })

    Promises

    Queries

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    sql.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })
     
    sql.connect(config).then(pool => {
        // Query
        
        return pool.request()
            .input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)
            .query('select * from mytable where id = @input_parameter')
    }).then(result => {
        console.dir(result)
    }).catch(err => {
      // ... error checks
    });

    Stored procedures

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    sql.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })
     
    sql.connect(config).then(pool => {
        
        // Stored procedure
        
        return pool.request()
            .input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)
            .output('output_parameter', sql.VarChar(50))
            .execute('procedure_name')
    }).then(result => {
        console.dir(result)
    }).catch(err => {
        // ... error checks
    })

    Native Promise is used by default. You can easily change this with sql.Promise = require('myownpromisepackage').

    ES6 Tagged template literals

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    sql.connect(config).then(() => {
        return sql.query`select * from mytable where id = ${value}`
    }).then(result => {
        console.dir(result)
    }).catch(err => {
        // ... error checks
    })
     
    sql.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })

    All values are automatically sanitized against sql injection. This is because it is rendered as prepared statement, and thus all limitations imposed in MS SQL on parameters apply. e.g. Column names cannot be passed/set in statements using variables.

    Callbacks

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    sql.connect(config, err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        // Query
     
        new sql.Request().query('select 1 as number', (err, result) => {
            // ... error checks
     
            console.dir(result)
        })
     
        // Stored Procedure
     
        new sql.Request()
        .input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)
        .output('output_parameter', sql.VarChar(50))
        .execute('procedure_name', (err, result) => {
            // ... error checks
     
            console.dir(result)
        })
     
        // Using template literal
     
        const request = new sql.Request()
        request.query(request.template`select * from mytable where id = ${value}`, (err, result) => {
            // ... error checks
            console.dir(result)
        })
    })
     
    sql.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })

    Streaming

    If you plan to work with large amount of rows, you should always use streaming. Once you enable this, you must listen for events to receive data.

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    sql.connect(config, err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        const request = new sql.Request()
        request.stream = true // You can set streaming differently for each request
        request.query('select * from verylargetable') // or request.execute(procedure)
     
        request.on('recordset', columns => {
            // Emitted once for each recordset in a query
        })
     
        request.on('row', row => {
            // Emitted for each row in a recordset
        })
     
        request.on('error', err => {
            // May be emitted multiple times
        })
     
        request.on('done', result => {
            // Always emitted as the last one
        })
    })
     
    sql.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })

    When streaming large sets of data you want to back-off or chunk the amount of data you're processing to prevent memory exhaustion issues; you can use the Request.pause() function to do this. Here is an example of managing rows in batches of 15:

    let rowsToProcess = [];
    request.on('row', row => {
      rowsToProcess.push(row);
      if (rowsToProcess.length >= 15) {
        request.pause();
        processRows();
      }
    });
    request.on('done', () => {
        processRows();
    });
     
    function processRows() {
      // process rows
      rowsToProcess = [];
      request.resume();
    }

    Pool Management

    An important concept to understand when using this library is Connection Pooling as this library uses connection pooling extensively.

    As one Node JS process is able to handle multiple requests at once, we can take advantage of this long running process to create a pool of database connections for reuse; this saves overhead of connecting to the database for each request (as would be the case in something like PHP, where one process handles one request).

    With the advantages of pooling comes some added complexities, but these are mostly just conceptual and once you understand how the pooling is working, it is simple to make use of it efficiently and effectively.

    The Global Connection (Pool)

    To assist with pool management in your application there is the global connect() function that is available for use. As of v6 of this library a developer can make repeated calls to this function to obtain the global connection pool. This means you do not need to keep track of the pool in your application (as used to be the case). If the global pool is already connected, it will resolve to the connected pool. For example:

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    // run a query against the global connection pool
    function runQuery(query) {
      // sql.connect() will return the existing global pool if it exists or create a new one if it doesn't
      return sql.connect().then((pool) => {
        return pool.query(query)
      })
    }
     

    Here we obtain the global connection pool by running sql.connect() and we then run the query against the pool. We also do not close the pool after the query is executed and that is because other queries may need to be run against this pool and closing it will add an overhead to running the query. We should only ever close the pool when our application is finished. For example, if we are running some kind of CLI tool or a CRON job:

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    (() => {
      sql.connect().then(pool => {
        return pool.query('SELECT 1')
      }).then(result => {
        // do something with result
      }).then(() => {
        return sql.close()
      })
    })()

    Here the connection will be closed and the node process will exit once the queries and other application logic has completed. You should aim to only close the pool once in your application, when it is exiting or you know your application will never make another SQL query.

    Advanced Pool Management

    In some instances you will not want to use the connection pool, you may have multiple databases to connect to or you may have one pool for read-only operations and another pool for read-write. In this instance you will need to implement your own pool management.

    That could look something like this:

    const { ConnectionPool } = require('mssql')
    const POOLS = {}
     
    function createPool(config, name) {
      if (getPool(name)) {
        throw new Error('Pool with this name already exists')
      }
      return POOLS[name] = (new ConnectionPool(config)).connect()
    }
     
    function closePool(name) {
      if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.apply(POOLS, name)) {
        const pool = POOLS[name];
        delete POOLS[name];
        return pool.close()
      }
    }
     
    function getPool(name) {
      if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.apply(POOLS, name)) {
        return POOLS[name]
      }
    }
     
    module.exports = {
      closePool,
      createPool,
      getPool
    }

    This helper file can then be used in your application to create, fetch and close your pools. As with the global pools, you should aim to only close a pool when you know it will never be needed by the application again; typically this will be when your application is shutting down.

    Connection Pools

    Using a single connection pool for your application/service is recommended. Instantiating a pool with a callback, or immediately calling .connect, is asynchronous to ensure a connection can be established before returning. From that point, you're able to acquire connections as normal:

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    // async/await style:
    const pool1 = new sql.ConnectionPool(config);
    const pool1Connect = pool1.connect();
     
    pool1.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })
     
    async function messageHandler() {
        await pool1Connect; // ensures that the pool has been created
        try {
            const request = pool1.request(); // or: new sql.Request(pool1)
            const result = await request.query('select 1 as number')
            console.dir(result)
            return result;
        } catch (err) {
            console.error('SQL error', err);
        }
    }
     
    // promise style:
    const pool2 = new sql.ConnectionPool(config)
    const pool2Connect = pool2.connect()
     
    pool2.on('error', err => {
        // ... error handler
    })
     
    function runStoredProcedure() {
        return pool2Connect.then((pool) => {
            pool.request() // or: new sql.Request(pool2)
            .input('input_parameter', sql.Int, 10)
            .output('output_parameter', sql.VarChar(50))
            .execute('procedure_name', (err, result) => {
                // ... error checks
                console.dir(result)
            })
        }).catch(err => {
            // ... error handler
        })
    }

    Awaiting or .thening the pool creation is a safe way to ensure that the pool is always ready, without knowing where it is needed first. In practice, once the pool is created then there will be no delay for the next operation.

    As of v6.1.0 you can make repeat calls to ConnectionPool.connect() and ConnectonPool.close() without an error being thrown, allowing for the safe use of mssql.connect().then(...) throughout your code as well as making multiple calls to close when your application is shutting down.

    The ability to call connect() repeatedly is intended to make pool management easier, however it is still recommended to follow the example above where connect() is called once and using the original resolved connection promise. Repeatedly calling connect() when running queries risks running into problems when close() is called on the pool.

    ES6 Tagged template literals

    new sql.ConnectionPool(config).connect().then(pool => {
        return pool.query`select * from mytable where id = ${value}`
    }).then(result => {
        console.dir(result)
    }).catch(err => {
        // ... error checks
    })

    All values are automatically sanitized against sql injection.

    Managing connection pools

    Most applications will only need a single ConnectionPool that can be shared throughout the code. To aid the sharing of a single pool this library exposes a set of functions to access a single global connection. eg:

    // as part of your application's boot process
     
    const sql = require('mssql')
    const poolPromise = sql.connect()
     
    // during your applications runtime
     
    poolPromise.then(() => {
      return sql.query('SELECT 1')
    }).then(result => {
      console.dir(result)
    })
     
    // when your application exits
    poolPromise.then(() => {
      return sql.close()
    })

    If you require multiple pools per application (perhaps you have many DBs you need to connect to or you want a read-only pool), then you will need to manage your pools yourself. The best way to do this is to create a shared library file that can hold references to the pools for you. For example:

    const sql = require('mssql')
     
    const pools = {}
     
    // manage a set of pools by name (config will be required to create the pool)
    // a pool will be removed when it is closed
    async function getPool(name, config) {
      if (!Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(pools, name)) {
        const pool = new sql.ConnectionPool(config)
        const close = pool.close.bind(pool)
        pool.close = (...args) => {
          delete pools[name]
          return close(...args)
        }
        await pool.connect()
        pools[name] = pool
      }
      return pools[name]
    }
     
    // close all pools
    function closeAll() {
      return Promise.all(Object.values(pools).map((pool) => {
        return pool.close()
      }))
    }
     
    module.exports = {
      closeAll,
      getPool
    }

    You can then use this library file in your code to get a connected pool when you need it:

    const { getPool } = require('./path/to/file')
     
    // run a query
    async function runQuery(query, config) {
      // pool will always be connected when the promise has resolved - may reject if the connection config is invalid
      const pool = await getPool('default', config)
      const result = await pool.request().query(query)
      return result
    }

    Configuration

    const config = {
        user: '...',
        password: '...',
        server: 'localhost',
        database: '...',
        pool: {
            max: 10,
            min: 0,
            idleTimeoutMillis: 30000
        }
    }

    General (same for all drivers)

    • user - User name to use for authentication.
    • password - Password to use for authentication.
    • server - Server to connect to. You can use 'localhost\instance' to connect to named instance.
    • port - Port to connect to (default: 1433). Don't set when connecting to named instance.
    • domain - Once you set domain, driver will connect to SQL Server using domain login.
    • database - Database to connect to (default: dependent on server configuration).
    • connectionTimeout - Connection timeout in ms (default: 15000).
    • requestTimeout - Request timeout in ms (default: 15000). NOTE: msnodesqlv8 driver doesn't support timeouts < 1 second. When passed via connection string, the key must be request timeout
    • stream - Stream recordsets/rows instead of returning them all at once as an argument of callback (default: false). You can also enable streaming for each request independently (request.stream = true). Always set to true if you plan to work with large amount of rows.
    • parseJSON - Parse JSON recordsets to JS objects (default: false). For more information please see section JSON support.
    • pool.max - The maximum number of connections there can be in the pool (default: 10).
    • pool.min - The minimum of connections there can be in the pool (default: 0).
    • pool.idleTimeoutMillis - The Number of milliseconds before closing an unused connection (default: 30000).

    Complete list of pool options can be found here.

    Formats

    In addition to configuration object there is an option to pass config as a connection string. Two formats of connection string are supported.

    Classic Connection String
    Server=localhost,1433;Database=database;User Id=username;Password=password;Encrypt=true
    Driver=msnodesqlv8;Server=(local)\INSTANCE;Database=database;UID=DOMAIN\username;PWD=password;Encrypt=true
    
    Connection String URI
    mssql://username:password@localhost:1433/database?encrypt=true
    mssql://username:password@localhost/INSTANCE/database?encrypt=true&domain=DOMAIN&driver=msnodesqlv8
    

    Drivers

    Tedious

    Default driver, actively maintained and production ready. Platform independent, runs everywhere Node.js runs. Officially supported by Microsoft.

    Extra options:

    • beforeConnect(conn) - Function, which is invoked before opening the connection. The parameter conn is the configured tedious Connection. It can be used for attaching event handlers like in this example:
    require('mssql').connect(...config, beforeConnect: conn => {
      conn.once('connect', err => { err ? console.error(err) : console.log('mssql connected')})
      conn.once('end', err => { err ? console.error(err) : console.log('mssql disconnected')})
    }})
    • options.instanceName - The instance name to connect to. The SQL Server Browser service must be running on the database server, and UDP port 1434 on the database server must be reachable.
    • options.useUTC - A boolean determining whether or not use UTC time for values without time zone offset (default: true).
    • options.encrypt - A boolean determining whether or not the connection will be encrypted (default: true).
    • options.tdsVersion - The version of TDS to use (default: 7_4, available: 7_1, 7_2, 7_3_A, 7_3_B, 7_4).
    • options.appName - Application name used for SQL server logging.
    • options.abortTransactionOnError - A boolean determining whether to rollback a transaction automatically if any error is encountered during the given transaction's execution. This sets the value for XACT_ABORT during the initial SQL phase of a connection.

    More information about Tedious specific options: http://tediousjs.github.io/tedious/api-connection.html

    Microsoft / Contributors Node V8 Driver for Node.js for SQL Server

    Requires Node.js v10+ or newer. Windows/Linux only. This driver is not part of the default package and must be installed separately by npm install msnodesqlv8. To use this driver, use this require syntax: const sql = require('mssql/msnodesqlv8').

    Extra options:

    • beforeConnect(conn) - Function, which is invoked before opening the connection. The parameter conn is the connection configuration, that can be modified to pass extra parameters to the driver's open() method.
    • connectionString - Connection string (default: see below).
    • options.instanceName - The instance name to connect to. The SQL Server Browser service must be running on the database server, and UDP port 1444 on the database server must be reachable.
    • options.trustedConnection - Use Windows Authentication (default: false).
    • options.useUTC - A boolean determining whether or not to use UTC time for values without time zone offset (default: true).

    Default connection string when connecting to port:

    Driver={SQL Server Native Client 11.0};Server={#{server},#{port}};Database={#{database}};Uid={#{user}};Pwd={#{password}};Trusted_Connection={#{trusted}};
    

    Default connection string when connecting to named instance:

    Driver={SQL Server Native Client 11.0};Server={#{server}\\#{instance}};Database={#{database}};Uid={#{user}};Pwd={#{password}};Trusted_Connection={#{trusted}};
    

    Connections

    Internally, each ConnectionPool instance is a separate pool of TDS connections. Once you create a new Request/Transaction/Prepared Statement, a new TDS connection is acquired from the pool and reserved for desired action. Once the action is complete, connection is released back to the pool. Connection health check is built-in so once the dead connection is discovered, it is immediately replaced with a new one.

    IMPORTANT: Always attach an error listener to created connection. Whenever something goes wrong with the connection it will emit an error and if there is no listener it will crash your application with an uncaught error.

    const pool = new sql.ConnectionPool({ /* config */ })

    Events

    • error(err) - Dispatched on connection error.

    connect ([callback])

    Create a new connection pool. The initial probe connection is created to find out whether the configuration is valid.

    Arguments

    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after initial probe connection has established, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const pool = new sql.ConnectionPool({
        user: '...',
        password: '...',
        server: 'localhost',
        database: '...'
    })
     
    pool.connect(err => {
        // ...
    })

    Errors

    • ELOGIN (ConnectionError) - Login failed.
    • ETIMEOUT (ConnectionError) - Connection timeout.
    • EALREADYCONNECTED (ConnectionError) - Database is already connected!
    • EALREADYCONNECTING (ConnectionError) - Already connecting to database!
    • EINSTLOOKUP (ConnectionError) - Instance lookup failed.
    • ESOCKET (ConnectionError) - Socket error.

    close()

    Close all active connections in the pool.

    Example

    pool.close()

    Request

    const request = new sql.Request(/* [pool or transaction] */)

    If you omit pool/transaction argument, global pool is used instead.

    Events

    • recordset(columns) - Dispatched when metadata for new recordset are parsed.
    • row(row) - Dispatched when new row is parsed.
    • done(returnValue) - Dispatched when request is complete.
    • error(err) - Dispatched on error.
    • info(message) - Dispatched on informational message.

    execute (procedure, [callback])

    Call a stored procedure.

    Arguments

    • procedure - Name of the stored procedure to be executed.
    • callback(err, recordsets, returnValue) - A callback which is called after execution has completed, or an error has occurred. returnValue is also accessible as property of recordsets. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)
    request.output('output_parameter', sql.Int)
    request.execute('procedure_name', (err, result) => {
        // ... error checks
     
        console.log(result.recordsets.length) // count of recordsets returned by the procedure
        console.log(result.recordsets[0].length) // count of rows contained in first recordset
        console.log(result.recordset) // first recordset from result.recordsets
        console.log(result.returnValue) // procedure return value
        console.log(result.output) // key/value collection of output values
        console.log(result.rowsAffected) // array of numbers, each number represents the number of rows affected by executed statemens
     
        // ...
    })

    Errors

    • EREQUEST (RequestError) - Message from SQL Server
    • ECANCEL (RequestError) - Cancelled.
    • ETIMEOUT (RequestError) - Request timeout.
    • ENOCONN (RequestError) - No connection is specified for that request.
    • ENOTOPEN (ConnectionError) - Connection not yet open.
    • ECONNCLOSED (ConnectionError) - Connection is closed.
    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.
    • EABORT (TransactionError) - Transaction was aborted (by user or because of an error).

    input (name, [type], value)

    Add an input parameter to the request.

    Arguments

    • name - Name of the input parameter without @ char.
    • type - SQL data type of input parameter. If you omit type, module automatically decide which SQL data type should be used based on JS data type.
    • value - Input parameter value. undefined ans NaN values are automatically converted to null values.

    Example

    request.input('input_parameter', value)
    request.input('input_parameter', sql.Int, value)

    JS Data Type To SQL Data Type Map

    • String -> sql.NVarChar
    • Number -> sql.Int
    • Boolean -> sql.Bit
    • Date -> sql.DateTime
    • Buffer -> sql.VarBinary
    • sql.Table -> sql.TVP

    Default data type for unknown object is sql.NVarChar.

    You can define your own type map.

    sql.map.register(MyClass, sql.Text)

    You can also overwrite the default type map.

    sql.map.register(Number, sql.BigInt)

    Errors (synchronous)

    • EARGS (RequestError) - Invalid number of arguments.
    • EINJECT (RequestError) - SQL injection warning.

    NB: Do not use parameters @p{n} as these are used by the internal drivers and cause a conflict.

    output (name, type, [value])

    Add an output parameter to the request.

    Arguments

    • name - Name of the output parameter without @ char.
    • type - SQL data type of output parameter.
    • value - Output parameter value initial value. undefined and NaN values are automatically converted to null values. Optional.

    Example

    request.output('output_parameter', sql.Int)
    request.output('output_parameter', sql.VarChar(50), 'abc')

    Errors (synchronous)

    • EARGS (RequestError) - Invalid number of arguments.
    • EINJECT (RequestError) - SQL injection warning.

    pipe (stream)

    Sets request to stream mode and pulls all rows from all recordsets to a given stream.

    Arguments

    • stream - Writable stream in object mode.

    Example

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.pipe(stream)
    request.query('select * from mytable')
    stream.on('error', err => {
        // ...
    })
    stream.on('finish', () => {
        // ...
    })

    query (command, [callback])

    Execute the SQL command. To execute commands like create procedure or if you plan to work with local temporary tables, use batch instead.

    Arguments

    • command - T-SQL command to be executed.
    • callback(err, recordset) - A callback which is called after execution has completed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.query('select 1 as number', (err, result) => {
        // ... error checks
     
        console.log(result.recordset[0].number) // return 1
     
        // ...
    })

    Errors

    • ETIMEOUT (RequestError) - Request timeout.
    • EREQUEST (RequestError) - Message from SQL Server
    • ECANCEL (RequestError) - Cancelled.
    • ENOCONN (RequestError) - No connection is specified for that request.
    • ENOTOPEN (ConnectionError) - Connection not yet open.
    • ECONNCLOSED (ConnectionError) - Connection is closed.
    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.
    • EABORT (TransactionError) - Transaction was aborted (by user or because of an error).
    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.query('select 1 as number; select 2 as number', (err, result) => {
        // ... error checks
     
        console.log(result.recordset[0].number) // return 1
        console.log(result.recordsets[0][0].number) // return 1
        console.log(result.recordsets[1][0].number) // return 2
    })

    NOTE: To get number of rows affected by the statement(s), see section Affected Rows.


    batch (batch, [callback])

    Execute the SQL command. Unlike query, it doesn't use sp_executesql, so is not likely that SQL Server will reuse the execution plan it generates for the SQL. Use this only in special cases, for example when you need to execute commands like create procedure which can't be executed with query or if you're executing statements longer than 4000 chars on SQL Server 2000. Also you should use this if you're plan to work with local temporary tables (more information here).

    NOTE: Table-Valued Parameter (TVP) is not supported in batch.

    Arguments

    • batch - T-SQL command to be executed.
    • callback(err, recordset) - A callback which is called after execution has completed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.batch('create procedure #temporary as select * from table', (err, result) => {
        // ... error checks
    })

    Errors

    • ETIMEOUT (RequestError) - Request timeout.
    • EREQUEST (RequestError) - Message from SQL Server
    • ECANCEL (RequestError) - Cancelled.
    • ENOCONN (RequestError) - No connection is specified for that request.
    • ENOTOPEN (ConnectionError) - Connection not yet open.
    • ECONNCLOSED (ConnectionError) - Connection is closed.
    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.
    • EABORT (TransactionError) - Transaction was aborted (by user or because of an error).

    You can enable multiple recordsets in queries with the request.multiple = true command.


    bulk (table, [options,] [callback])

    Perform a bulk insert.

    Arguments

    • table - sql.Table instance.
    • options - Options object to be passed through to driver (currently tedious only). Optional. If argument is a function it will be treated as the callback.
    • callback(err, rowCount) - A callback which is called after bulk insert has completed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const table = new sql.Table('table_name') // or temporary table, e.g. #temptable
    table.create = true
    table.columns.add('a', sql.Int, {nullable: true, primary: true})
    table.columns.add('b', sql.VarChar(50), {nullable: false})
    table.rows.add(777, 'test')
     
    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.bulk(table, (err, result) => {
        // ... error checks
    })

    IMPORTANT: Always indicate whether the column is nullable or not!

    TIP: If you set table.create to true, module will check if the table exists before it start sending data. If it doesn't, it will automatically create it. You can specify primary key columns by setting primary: true to column's options. Primary key constraint on multiple columns is supported.

    TIP: You can also create Table variable from any recordset with recordset.toTable(). You can optionally specify table type name in the first argument.

    Errors

    • ENAME (RequestError) - Table name must be specified for bulk insert.
    • ETIMEOUT (RequestError) - Request timeout.
    • EREQUEST (RequestError) - Message from SQL Server
    • ECANCEL (RequestError) - Cancelled.
    • ENOCONN (RequestError) - No connection is specified for that request.
    • ENOTOPEN (ConnectionError) - Connection not yet open.
    • ECONNCLOSED (ConnectionError) - Connection is closed.
    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.
    • EABORT (TransactionError) - Transaction was aborted (by user or because of an error).

    cancel()

    Cancel currently executing request. Return true if cancellation packet was send successfully.

    Example

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.query('waitfor delay \'00:00:05\'; select 1 as number', (err, result) => {
        console.log(err instanceof sql.RequestError)  // true
        console.log(err.message)                      // Cancelled.
        console.log(err.code)                         // ECANCEL
     
        // ...
    })
     
    request.cancel()

    Transaction

    IMPORTANT: always use Transaction class to create transactions - it ensures that all your requests are executed on one connection. Once you call begin, a single connection is acquired from the connection pool and all subsequent requests (initialized with the Transaction object) are executed exclusively on this connection. After you call commit or rollback, connection is then released back to the connection pool.

    const transaction = new sql.Transaction(/* [pool] */)

    If you omit connection argument, global connection is used instead.

    Example

    const transaction = new sql.Transaction(/* [pool] */)
    transaction.begin(err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        const request = new sql.Request(transaction)
        request.query('insert into mytable (mycolumn) values (12345)', (err, result) => {
            // ... error checks
     
            transaction.commit(err => {
                // ... error checks
     
                console.log("Transaction committed.")
            })
        })
    })

    Transaction can also be created by const transaction = pool.transaction(). Requests can also be created by const request = transaction.request().

    Aborted transactions

    This example shows how you should correctly handle transaction errors when abortTransactionOnError (XACT_ABORT) is enabled. Added in 2.0.

    const transaction = new sql.Transaction(/* [pool] */)
    transaction.begin(err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        let rolledBack = false
     
        transaction.on('rollback', aborted => {
            // emited with aborted === true
     
            rolledBack = true
        })
     
        new sql.Request(transaction)
        .query('insert into mytable (bitcolumn) values (2)', (err, result) => {
            // insert should fail because of invalid value
     
            if (err) {
                if (!rolledBack) {
                    transaction.rollback(err => {
                        // ... error checks
                    })
                }
            } else {
                transaction.commit(err => {
                    // ... error checks
                })
            }
        })
    })

    Events

    • begin - Dispatched when transaction begin.
    • commit - Dispatched on successful commit.
    • rollback(aborted) - Dispatched on successful rollback with an argument determining if the transaction was aborted (by user or because of an error).

    begin ([isolationLevel], [callback])

    Begin a transaction.

    Arguments

    • isolationLevel - Controls the locking and row versioning behavior of TSQL statements issued by a connection. Optional. READ_COMMITTED by default. For possible values see sql.ISOLATION_LEVEL.
    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after transaction has began, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const transaction = new sql.Transaction()
    transaction.begin(err => {
        // ... error checks
    })

    Errors

    • ENOTOPEN (ConnectionError) - Connection not yet open.
    • EALREADYBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has already begun.

    commit ([callback])

    Commit a transaction.

    Arguments

    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after transaction has committed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const transaction = new sql.Transaction()
    transaction.begin(err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        transaction.commit(err => {
            // ... error checks
        })
    })

    Errors

    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.
    • EREQINPROG (TransactionError) - Can't commit transaction. There is a request in progress.

    rollback ([callback])

    Rollback a transaction. If the queue isn't empty, all queued requests will be Cancelled and the transaction will be marked as aborted.

    Arguments

    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after transaction has rolled back, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const transaction = new sql.Transaction()
    transaction.begin(err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        transaction.rollback(err => {
            // ... error checks
        })
    })

    Errors

    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.
    • EREQINPROG (TransactionError) - Can't rollback transaction. There is a request in progress.

    Prepared Statement

    IMPORTANT: always use PreparedStatement class to create prepared statements - it ensures that all your executions of prepared statement are executed on one connection. Once you call prepare, a single connection is acquired from the connection pool and all subsequent executions are executed exclusively on this connection. After you call unprepare, the connection is then released back to the connection pool.

    const ps = new sql.PreparedStatement(/* [pool] */)

    If you omit the connection argument, the global connection is used instead.

    Example

    const ps = new sql.PreparedStatement(/* [pool] */)
    ps.input('param', sql.Int)
    ps.prepare('select @param as value', err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        ps.execute({param: 12345}, (err, result) => {
            // ... error checks
     
            // release the connection after queries are executed
            ps.unprepare(err => {
                // ... error checks
     
            })
        })
    })

    IMPORTANT: Remember that each prepared statement means one reserved connection from the pool. Don't forget to unprepare a prepared statement when you've finished your queries!

    You can execute multiple queries against the same prepared statement but you must unprepare the statement when you have finished using it otherwise you will cause the connection pool to run out of available connections.

    TIP: You can also create prepared statements in transactions (new sql.PreparedStatement(transaction)), but keep in mind you can't execute other requests in the transaction until you call unprepare.


    input (name, type)

    Add an input parameter to the prepared statement.

    Arguments

    • name - Name of the input parameter without @ char.
    • type - SQL data type of input parameter.

    Example

    ps.input('input_parameter', sql.Int)
    ps.input('input_parameter', sql.VarChar(50))

    Errors (synchronous)

    • EARGS (PreparedStatementError) - Invalid number of arguments.
    • EINJECT (PreparedStatementError) - SQL injection warning.

    output (name, type)

    Add an output parameter to the prepared statement.

    Arguments

    • name - Name of the output parameter without @ char.
    • type - SQL data type of output parameter.

    Example

    ps.output('output_parameter', sql.Int)
    ps.output('output_parameter', sql.VarChar(50))

    Errors (synchronous)

    • EARGS (PreparedStatementError) - Invalid number of arguments.
    • EINJECT (PreparedStatementError) - SQL injection warning.

    prepare (statement, [callback])

    Prepare a statement.

    Arguments

    • statement - T-SQL statement to prepare.
    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after preparation has completed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const ps = new sql.PreparedStatement()
    ps.prepare('select @param as value', err => {
        // ... error checks
    })

    Errors

    • ENOTOPEN (ConnectionError) - Connection not yet open.
    • EALREADYPREPARED (PreparedStatementError) - Statement is already prepared.
    • ENOTBEGUN (TransactionError) - Transaction has not begun.

    execute (values, [callback])

    Execute a prepared statement.

    Arguments

    • values - An object whose names correspond to the names of parameters that were added to the prepared statement before it was prepared.
    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after execution has completed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const ps = new sql.PreparedStatement()
    ps.input('param', sql.Int)
    ps.prepare('select @param as value', err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        ps.execute({param: 12345}, (err, result) => {
            // ... error checks
     
            console.log(result.recordset[0].value) // return 12345
            console.log(result.rowsAffected) // Returns number of affected rows in case of INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement.
            
            ps.unprepare(err => {
                // ... error checks
            })
        })
    })

    You can also stream executed request.

    const ps = new sql.PreparedStatement()
    ps.input('param', sql.Int)
    ps.prepare('select @param as value', err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        ps.stream = true
        const request = ps.execute({param: 12345})
     
        request.on('recordset', columns => {
            // Emitted once for each recordset in a query
        })
     
        request.on('row', row => {
            // Emitted for each row in a recordset
        })
     
        request.on('error', err => {
            // May be emitted multiple times
        })
     
        request.on('done', result => {
            // Always emitted as the last one
            
            console.log(result.rowsAffected) // Returns number of affected rows in case of INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement.
            
            ps.unprepare(err => {
                // ... error checks
            })
        })
    })

    TIP: To learn more about how number of affected rows works, see section Affected Rows.

    Errors

    • ENOTPREPARED (PreparedStatementError) - Statement is not prepared.
    • ETIMEOUT (RequestError) - Request timeout.
    • EREQUEST (RequestError) - Message from SQL Server
    • ECANCEL (RequestError) - Cancelled.

    unprepare ([callback])

    Unprepare a prepared statement.

    Arguments

    • callback(err) - A callback which is called after unpreparation has completed, or an error has occurred. Optional. If omitted, returns Promise.

    Example

    const ps = new sql.PreparedStatement()
    ps.input('param', sql.Int)
    ps.prepare('select @param as value', err => {
        // ... error checks
     
        ps.unprepare(err => {
            // ... error checks
     
        })
    })

    Errors

    • ENOTPREPARED (PreparedStatementError) - Statement is not prepared.

    CLI

    Before you can start using CLI, you must install mssql globally with npm install mssql -g. Once you do that you will be able to execute mssql command.

    Setup

    Create a .mssql.json configuration file (anywhere). Structure of the file is the same as the standard configuration object.

    {
        "user": "...",
        "password": "...",
        "server": "localhost",
        "database": "..."
    }

    Example

    echo "select * from mytable" | mssql /path/to/config

    Results in:

    [[{"username":"patriksimek","password":"tooeasy"}]]

    You can also query for multiple recordsets.

    echo "select * from mytable; select * from myothertable" | mssql

    Results in:

    [[{"username":"patriksimek","password":"tooeasy"}],[{"id":15,"name":"Product name"}]]

    If you omit config path argument, mssql will try to load it from current working directory.

    Geography and Geometry

    node-mssql has built-in serializer for Geography and Geometry CLR data types.

    select geography::STGeomFromText('LINESTRING(-122.360 47.656, -122.343 47.656 )'4326)
    select geometry::STGeomFromText('LINESTRING (100 100 10.3 12, 20 180, 180 180)'0)

    Results in:

    { srid: 4326,
      version: 1,
      points: [ { x: 47.656, y: -122.36 }, { x: 47.656, y: -122.343 } ],
      figures: [ { attribute: 1, pointOffset: 0 } ],
      shapes: [ { parentOffset: -1, figureOffset: 0, type: 2 } ],
      segments: [] }
     
    { srid: 0,
      version: 1,
      points:
       [ { x: 100, y: 100, z: 10.3, m: 12 },
         { x: 20, y: 180, z: NaN, m: NaN },
         { x: 180, y: 180, z: NaN, m: NaN } ],
      figures: [ { attribute: 1, pointOffset: 0 } ],
      shapes: [ { parentOffset: -1, figureOffset: 0, type: 2 } ],
      segments: [] }

    Table-Valued Parameter (TVP)

    Supported on SQL Server 2008 and later. You can pass a data table as a parameter to stored procedure. First, we have to create custom type in our database.

    CREATE TYPE TestType AS TABLE ( a VARCHAR(50), b INT );

    Next we will need a stored procedure.

    CREATE PROCEDURE MyCustomStoredProcedure (@tvp TestType readonly) AS SELECT * FROM @tvp

    Now let's go back to our Node.js app.

    const tvp = new sql.Table() // You can optionally specify table type name in the first argument.
     
    // Columns must correspond with type we have created in database.
    tvp.columns.add('a', sql.VarChar(50))
    tvp.columns.add('b', sql.Int)
     
    // Add rows
    tvp.rows.add('hello tvp', 777) // Values are in same order as columns.

    You can send table as a parameter to stored procedure.

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.input('tvp', tvp)
    request.execute('MyCustomStoredProcedure', (err, result) => {
        // ... error checks
     
        console.dir(result.recordsets[0][0]) // {a: 'hello tvp', b: 777}
    })

    TIP: You can also create Table variable from any recordset with recordset.toTable(). You can optionally specify table type name in the first argument.

    Affected Rows

    If you're performing INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE in a query, you can read number of affected rows. The rowsAffected variable is an array of numbers. Each number represents number of affected rows by a single statement.

    Example using Promises

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.query('update myAwesomeTable set awesomness = 100').then(result => {
        console.log(result.rowsAffected)
    })

    Example using callbacks

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.query('update myAwesomeTable set awesomness = 100', (err, result) => {
        console.log(result.rowsAffected)
    })

    Example using streaming

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.stream = true
    request.query('update myAwesomeTable set awesomness = 100')
    request.on('done', result => {
        console.log(result.rowsAffected)
    })

    JSON support

    SQL Server 2016 introduced built-in JSON serialization. By default, JSON is returned as a plain text in a special column named JSON_F52E2B61-18A1-11d1-B105-00805F49916B.

    Example

    SELECT
        1 AS 'a.b.c',
        2 AS 'a.b.d',
        3 AS 'a.x',
        4 AS 'a.y'
    FOR JSON PATH

    Results in:

    recordset = [ { 'JSON_F52E2B61-18A1-11d1-B105-00805F49916B': '{"a":{"b":{"c":1,"d":2},"x":3,"y":4}}' } ]

    You can enable built-in JSON parser with config.parseJSON = true. Once you enable this, recordset will contain rows of parsed JS objects. Given the same example, result will look like this:

    recordset = [ { a: { b: { c: 1, d: 2 }, x: 3, y: 4 } } ]

    IMPORTANT: In order for this to work, there must be exactly one column named JSON_F52E2B61-18A1-11d1-B105-00805F49916B in the recordset.

    More information about JSON support can be found in official documentation.

    Errors

    There are 4 types of errors you can handle:

    • ConnectionError - Errors related to connections and connection pool.
    • TransactionError - Errors related to creating, committing and rolling back transactions.
    • RequestError - Errors related to queries and stored procedures execution.
    • PreparedStatementError - Errors related to prepared statements.

    Those errors are initialized in node-mssql module and its original stack may be cropped. You can always access original error with err.originalError.

    SQL Server may generate more than one error for one request so you can access preceding errors with err.precedingErrors.

    Error Codes

    Each known error has name, code and message properties.

    Name Code Message
    ConnectionError ELOGIN Login failed.
    ConnectionError ETIMEOUT Connection timeout.
    ConnectionError EDRIVER Unknown driver.
    ConnectionError EALREADYCONNECTED Database is already connected!
    ConnectionError EALREADYCONNECTING Already connecting to database!
    ConnectionError ENOTOPEN Connection not yet open.
    ConnectionError EINSTLOOKUP Instance lookup failed.
    ConnectionError ESOCKET Socket error.
    ConnectionError ECONNCLOSED Connection is closed.
    TransactionError ENOTBEGUN Transaction has not begun.
    TransactionError EALREADYBEGUN Transaction has already begun.
    TransactionError EREQINPROG Can't commit/rollback transaction. There is a request in progress.
    TransactionError EABORT Transaction has been aborted.
    RequestError EREQUEST Message from SQL Server. Error object contains additional details.
    RequestError ECANCEL Cancelled.
    RequestError ETIMEOUT Request timeout.
    RequestError EARGS Invalid number of arguments.
    RequestError EINJECT SQL injection warning.
    RequestError ENOCONN No connection is specified for that request.
    PreparedStatementError EARGS Invalid number of arguments.
    PreparedStatementError EINJECT SQL injection warning.
    PreparedStatementError EALREADYPREPARED Statement is already prepared.
    PreparedStatementError ENOTPREPARED Statement is not prepared.

    Detailed SQL Errors

    SQL errors (RequestError with err.code equal to EREQUEST) contains additional details.

    • err.number - The error number.
    • err.state - The error state, used as a modifier to the number.
    • err.class - The class (severity) of the error. A class of less than 10 indicates an informational message. Detailed explanation can be found here.
    • err.lineNumber - The line number in the SQL batch or stored procedure that caused the error. Line numbers begin at 1; therefore, if the line number is not applicable to the message, the value of LineNumber will be 0.
    • err.serverName - The server name.
    • err.procName - The stored procedure name.

    Informational messages

    To receive informational messages generated by PRINT or RAISERROR commands use:

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.on('info', info => {
        console.dir(info)
    })
    request.query('print \'Hello world.\';', (err, result) => {
        // ...
    })

    Structure of informational message:

    • info.message - Message.
    • info.number - The message number.
    • info.state - The message state, used as a modifier to the number.
    • info.class - The class (severity) of the message. Equal or lower than 10. Detailed explanation can be found here.
    • info.lineNumber - The line number in the SQL batch or stored procedure that generated the message. Line numbers begin at 1; therefore, if the line number is not applicable to the message, the value of LineNumber will be 0.
    • info.serverName - The server name.
    • info.procName - The stored procedure name.

    Metadata

    Recordset metadata are accessible through the recordset.columns property.

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.query('select convert(decimal(18, 4), 1) as first, \'asdf\' as second', (err, result) => {
        console.dir(result.recordset.columns)
     
        console.log(result.recordset.columns.first.type === sql.Decimal) // true
        console.log(result.recordset.columns.second.type === sql.VarChar) // true
    })

    Columns structure for example above:

    {
        first: {
            index: 0,
            name: 'first',
            length: 17,
            type: [sql.Decimal],
            scale: 4,
            precision: 18,
            nullable: true,
            caseSensitive: false
            identity: false
            readOnly: true
        },
        second: {
            index: 1,
            name: 'second',
            length: 4,
            type: [sql.VarChar],
            nullable: false,
            caseSensitive: false
            identity: false
            readOnly: true
        }
    }

    Data Types

    You can define data types with length/precision/scale:

    request.input("name", sql.VarChar, "abc")               // varchar(3)
    request.input("name", sql.VarChar(50), "abc")           // varchar(50)
    request.input("name", sql.VarChar(sql.MAX), "abc")      // varchar(MAX)
    request.output("name", sql.VarChar)                     // varchar(8000)
    request.output("name", sql.VarChar, "abc")              // varchar(3)
     
    request.input("name", sql.Decimal, 155.33)              // decimal(18, 0)
    request.input("name", sql.Decimal(10), 155.33)          // decimal(10, 0)
    request.input("name", sql.Decimal(10, 2), 155.33)       // decimal(10, 2)
     
    request.input("name", sql.DateTime2, new Date())        // datetime2(7)
    request.input("name", sql.DateTime2(5), new Date())     // datetime2(5)

    List of supported data types:

    sql.Bit
    sql.BigInt
    sql.Decimal ([precision], [scale])
    sql.Float
    sql.Int
    sql.Money
    sql.Numeric ([precision], [scale])
    sql.SmallInt
    sql.SmallMoney
    sql.Real
    sql.TinyInt
    
    sql.Char ([length])
    sql.NChar ([length])
    sql.Text
    sql.NText
    sql.VarChar ([length])
    sql.NVarChar ([length])
    sql.Xml
    
    sql.Time ([scale])
    sql.Date
    sql.DateTime
    sql.DateTime2 ([scale])
    sql.DateTimeOffset ([scale])
    sql.SmallDateTime
    
    sql.UniqueIdentifier
    
    sql.Variant
    
    sql.Binary
    sql.VarBinary ([length])
    sql.Image
    
    sql.UDT
    sql.Geography
    sql.Geometry
    

    To setup MAX length for VarChar, NVarChar and VarBinary use sql.MAX length. Types sql.XML and sql.Variant are not supported as input parameters.

    SQL injection

    This module has built-in SQL injection protection. Always use parameters or tagged template literals to pass sanitized values to your queries.

    const request = new sql.Request()
    request.input('myval', sql.VarChar, '-- commented')
    request.query('select @myval as myval', (err, result) => {
        console.dir(result)
    })

    Known issues

    Tedious

    • If you're facing problems with connecting SQL Server 2000, try setting the default TDS version to 7.1 with config.options.tdsVersion = '7_1' (issue)
    • If you're executing a statement longer than 4000 chars on SQL Server 2000, always use batch instead of query (issue)

    msnodesqlv8

    5.x to 6.x changes

    • Upgraded tarn.js so _poolDestroy can take advantage of being a promise
    • ConnectionPool.close() now returns a promise / callbacks will be executed once closing of the pool is complete; you must make sure that connections are properly released back to the pool otherwise the pool may fail to close.
    • It is safe to pass read-only config objects to the library; config objects are now cloned
    • options.encrypt is now true by default
    • TYPES.Null has now been removed
    • Upgraded tedious driver to v6 and upgraded support for msnodesqlv8]
    • You can now close the global connection by reference and this will clean up the global connection, eg: const conn = sql.connect(); conn.close() will be the same as sql.close()
    • Bulk table inserts will attempt to coerce dates from non-Date objects if the column type is expecting a date
    • Repeat calls to the global connect function (sql.connect()) will return the current global connection if it exists (rather than throwing an error)
    • Attempting to add a parameter to queries / stored procedures will now throw an error; use replaceInput and replaceOutput instead
    • Invalid isolation levels passed to Transactions will now throw an error
    • ConnectionPool now reports if it is healthy or not (ConnectionPool.healthy) which can be used to determine if the pool is able to create new connections or not
    • Pause/Resume support for streamed results has been added to the msnodesqlv8 driver

    4.x to 5.x changes

    • Moved pool library from node-pool to tarn.js
    • ConnectionPool.pool.size deprecated, use ConnectionPool.size instead
    • ConnectionPool.pool.available deprecated, use ConnectionPool.available instead
    • ConnectionPool.pool.pending deprecated, use ConnectionPool.pending instead
    • ConnectionPool.pool.borrowed deprecated, use ConnectionPool.borrowed instead

    3.x to 4.x changes

    • Library & tests are rewritten to ES6.
    • Connection was renamed to ConnectionPool.
    • Drivers are no longer loaded dynamically so the library is now compatible with Webpack. To use msnodesqlv8 driver, use const sql = require('mssql/msnodesqlv8') syntax.
    • Every callback/resolve now returns result object only. This object contains recordsets (array of recordsets), recordset (first recordset from array of recordsets), rowsAffected (array of numbers representig number of affected rows by each insert/update/delete statement) and output (key/value collection of output parameters' values).
    • Affected rows are now returned as an array. A separate number for each SQL statement.
    • Directive multiple: true was removed.
    • Transaction and PreparedStatement internal queues was removed.
    • ConnectionPool no longer emits connect and close events.
    • Removed verbose and debug mode.
    • Removed support for tds and msnodesql drivers.
    • Removed support for Node versions lower than 4.

    Install

    npm i ut-mssql

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    18

    Version

    6.2.3

    License

    MIT

    Unpacked Size

    238 kB

    Total Files

    36

    Last publish

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