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tiny-tfidf-node

0.0.1 • Public • Published

tiny-tfidf

npm

Minimal implementations of a couple of classic text analysis tools (TF-IDF and cosine similarity). Everything is done in memory so this library is not suitable for large-scale use. Instead, the goal is to create something simple that can be used to explain or experiment with the techniques, using a small set of documents. For a detailed and interactive explanation, see this Observable notebook.

The term weighting scheme is BM25, as described in this technical report by Stephen Robertson and Karen Spärck Jones.

A basic set of English stopwords is included, and you can specify your own list of stopwords to add. In the interest of keeping this "tiny" (and fast enough to run in the browser) there are some useful things that I didn't implement, most notably:

  • phrases (bigrams, trigrams, etc), e.g. "proof of concept"
  • stemming or lemmatizing, e.g. reducing "concept" and "concepts" to the same root

I am open to adding either if there's a tiny way to do it!

Usage

Note: I'm still actively developing this code (and documentation), and the API is likely to change/evolve up until version 1.0.

import { Corpus } from "tiny-tfidf";
 
const corpus = new Corpus(
  ["document1", "document2", "document3"],
  [
    "This is test document number 1. It is quite a short document.",
    "This is test document 2. It is also quite short, and is a test.",
    "Test document number three is a bit different and is also a tiny bit longer."
  ]
);
 
// print top terms for document 3
console.log(corpus.getTopTermsForDocument("document3"));
 
// result
[
  [ 'bit', 1.9939850399669656 ],
  [ 'three', 1.3113595307890855 ],
  [ 'different', 1.3113595307890855 ],
  [ 'tiny', 1.3113595307890855 ],
  [ 'longer', 1.3113595307890855 ],
  [ 'number', 0.6556797653945428 ],
  [ 'also', 0.6556797653945428 ],
  [ 'test', 0.2721316901570901 ],
  [ 'document', 0.2721316901570901 ]
]

For many more usage examples, see this Observable notebook.

With Node.js

Disclaimer: this is an ES6 module and is mostly intended for use in the browser, rather than with Node.js (more background on ES6 modules and Node).

Example with Node v12.6.0 :

node --experimental-modules --es-module-specifier-resolution=node test.js

API (v0.9)

Corpus class

This is the main class that you will use directly. It takes care of creating a Document for every text and also manages Stopwords for the collection. It calculates term frequencies, term weights, and term vectors, and can return results for a given query.

  • constructor(names, texts, useDefaultStopwords = true, customStopwords = [], K1 = 2.0, b = 0.75): names and texts are parallel arrays containing the document identifiers and the full texts of each document; useDefaultStopwords and customStopwords are optional parameters that are passed along to the Stopwords instance (see below); K1 and b are optional tuning parameters for term weighting that are explained in the reference technical report
  • getTerms(): returns an array containing the unique terms used in the corpus (excluding stopwords)
  • getCollectionFrequency(term): returns the number of documents in the collection that contain the given term
  • getDocument(identifier): returns the Document object for the given identifier
  • getDocumentIdentifiers(): returns an array of all identifiers in the corpus
  • getCommonTerms(identifier1, identifier2, maxTerms = 10): returns an array of the terms that the documents with these two identifiers have in common; each array entry is a pair of a term and a score, and the array is sorted in descending order by the score, with a maximum length of maxTerms (which is optional and defaults to 10)
  • getCollectionFrequencyWeight(term): returns the collection frequency weight (or inverse document frequency) for the given term
  • getDocumentVector(identifier): returns a Map from terms to their corresponding combined (TF-IDF) weights, for the document with the given identifier (this is used by the Similarity class)
  • getTopTermsForDocument(identifier, maxTerms = 30): returns an array containing the terms with the highest combined (TF-IDF) weights for the document with the given identifier; each array entry is a pair of a term and a weight, and the array is sorted in descending order by the weight, with a maximum length of maxTerms (which is optional and defaults to 30)
  • getResultsForQuery(query): returns an array representing the highest scoring documents for the given query; each array entry is a pair of a document identifier and a score, and the array is sorted in descending order by the score. The score for a document is the total combined weight of each query term that appears in the document.
  • getStopwords(): returns the Stopwords instance that is being used by this corpus (for inspection or debugging)

The other methods in the class (whose names start with _calculate) are intended for internal use.

Document class

This is used by the Corpus class for each of the given texts. It is independent of any stopword list or term weights (which are managed at the corpus level) and only maintains the document-level term frequencies. Terms can contain only letters or numbers; they are filtered out if they contain only 1 character or if they start with a number.

  • constructor(text): expects a single one of the texts originally passed into Corpus
  • getTermFrequency(term): returns a count of how often the given term appears in this document
  • getText(): returns a string containing the full text of this document (e.g. for display)
  • getLength(): returns the total number of terms in the document (including stopwords)
  • getUniqueTerms(): returns an array of the unique terms that appear in the document (including stopwords)

The other method, _calculateTermFrequencies, is intended for internal use.

Stopwords class

  • constructor(useDefaultStopwords = true, customStopwords = []): useDefaultStopwords and customStopwords are optional parameters, as specified in the constructor for Corpus, which control whether the default stopword list should be used, and to specify any custom stopwords. If the default stopword list is to be used, any custom stopwords are added to that list; if not, the custom stopwords are used instead of the default list.
  • includes(term): returns true if the current stopword list contains the given term, or false otherwise
  • getStopwordList(): returns an array of the stopword list currently in use (for inspection or debugging)

Similarity class

An optional addition: once you have a Corpus you can use Similarity to calculate the pairwise similarity between the documents in the corpus, resulting in a distance matrix (distance = 1 - similarity).

  • constructor(corpus): expects an instance of Corpus
  • getDistanceMatrix(): returns an object with properties identifiers (an array of identifiers for the items in the matrix) and matrix (an array of arrays, where the values represent distances between items; distance is 1.0 - similarity, so 0 = identical)

There is also a static method, cosineSimilarity(vector1, vector2), which calculates the similarity between a pair of documents (as the cosine of the angle between their vectors). Each vector is represented as an ES6 Map from each term to its combined (TF-IDF) weight for the corresponding document. It is currently only used to calculate individual entries in the distance matrix. The other method, _calculateDistanceMatrix, is intended for internal use.

Install

npm i tiny-tfidf-node

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