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    respec-given

    1.2.1 • Public • Published

    respec-given

    respec-given is an extension to the mocha testing framework. It encourages cleaner, readable, and maintainable specs/tests using Given, When, and Then. It is a shameless tribute to Ludwig Magnusson's mocha-gwt, Robert Fleischmann's mocha-given, Justin Searl's jasmine-given, James Sadler's given.js, Sergii Stotskyi's bdd-lazy-var, and the origination of all: Jim Weirich's rspec-given gem.

    If you never heard any project mentioned above, I highly recommend you watching How to Stop Hating your Test Suite by Justin Searls, which inspired me to start this project.

    rspec-given is awesome. While embrace JavaScript's asynchronous nature, respec-given aims to strictly meet rspec-given's spec. Seriously.

    Demo

    usage demo

    Installation

    install respec-given locally

    npm install --save-dev respec-given
    

    Usage

    Node.js

    with mocha command:

    mocha --ui respec-given --require respec-given/na-loader
    

    see more about natural assertion loaders

    Browser

    add script tag after load mocha:

    <script src="node_modules/respec-given/mocha/browser.js"></script>
    <script>mocha.setup('respec-given')</script>
    

    natural assertion transformation tools is not available yet, but you won't wait too long :)

    Example

    Here is a spec written in respec-given.

    const Stack = require('../stack');
     
    describe('Stack', () => {
     
      const stack_with = (initial_contents) => {
        var stack = Object.create(Stack);
        initial_contents.forEach(item => stack.push(item))
        return stack;
      };
     
      Given('stack', $ => stack_with($.initial_contents))
      Invariant($ => $.stack.empty() === ($.stack.depth() === 0))
     
      context("with no items", () => {
        Given('initial_contents', () => [] )
        Then($ => $.stack.depth() === 0)
     
        context("when pushing", => {
          When($ => $.stack.push('an_item'))
     
          Then($ => $.stack.depth() === 1)
          Then($ => $.stack.top() === 'an_item')
        })
      })
     
      context("with one item", () => {
        Given('initial_contents', () => ['an_item'])
     
        context("when popping", () => {
          When('pop_result', $ => $.stack.pop())
     
          Then($ => $.pop_result === 'an_item')
          Then($ => $.stack.depth() === 0)
        })
      })
     
      context("with several items", () => {
        Given('initial_contents', () => ['second_item', 'top_item'])
        GivenI('original_depth', $ => $.stack.depth())
     
        context("when pushing", () => {
          When($ => $.stack.push('new_item'))
     
          Then($ => $.stack.top() === 'new_item')
          Then($ => $.stack.depth() === $.original_depth + 1)
        })
     
        context("when popping", () => {
          When('pop_result', $ => $.stack.pop())
     
          Then($ => $.pop_result === 'top_item')
          Then($ => $.stack.top() === 'second_item')
          Then($ => $.stack.depth() === $.original_depth - 1)
        })
      })

    Before we take a closer look at each statement used in respec-given, I hope you can read rspec-given's documentation first. It explained the idea behind its design excellently.

    Instead of repeat Jim's words, I'll simply introduce API here.

    Given

    Given is used to setup precondition. There are 2 types of Given: lazy Given and immediate Given.

    Lazy Given

        // Given("varname", fn)
        Given('stack', () => stack_with([]) )

    $.stack become accessible in other clauses.

    The function will be evaluated until first access to $.stack. Once the function is evaluated, the result is cached.

    If you have multiple Givens, like

        Given('stack1', () => stack_with([1, 2]) )
        Given('stack2', () => stack_with([3, 4]) )

    you can use object notation as a shorthand:

        // Given({hash})
        Given({
          stack1: () => stack_with([1, 2]),
          stack2: () => stack_with([3, 4])
        })

    Immediate Given

    There are several form of immediate Given. The first category is Given(fn). Since it doesn't specify a variable name, it is for side-effects. The Second category is GivenI(varname, fn). It will evaluate fn immediately and assign the returned result to this.varname. If error occurs in fn, GivenI expression will fail.

        // Given(fn)
        Given(($) => stack_with([]) )

    Using this form, the function will be evaluated immediately.

        Given(() => new Promise(...) )

    If the function returns a Promise, next statement will be executed until the promise is resolved.

        Given(() => new Observable(...) )

    If the function returns an Observable, next statement will be executed until the observable is complete.

        // Given(fn(done))
        Given(($, done) => {
          asyncOp(done)
        })

    Using this form, you can perform an asynchronous operation. When finished, you should call done() is success, or done(err) if the operation failed.

        // Given(generatorFn)
        Given(function*() { yield yieldable })

    generator function is also supported. It will be executed until it returns or throws.

        // GivenI("varname", fn)
        GivenI('stack', () => stack_with([]) )

    Using this form, the function will be evaluated immediately and the return value is assigned to $.stack.

    Note unlike lazy-Given, if fn returns a Promise or an Observable, it will be resolved/completed automatically.

    Also, fn can have a callback with signature (err, res), so you can perform asynchronous operation.

    fn can also be a generator function. the returned value will be assigned to $.varname.

    Let statement

    rspec has let helper, which is a lazy variable declaration. In rspec, Given is simply alias to let. (Jim mentioned a reason why we need let if we have Given already.)

    Since ES6 introduce let keyword, to avoid name collision, respec-given choose capitalized Let.

    • Let is an alias to Given, which maps to rspec-given's let/Given
    • LetI is an alias to GivenI, which maps to rspec-given's let!/Given!

    When

    When is used to perform action and capture result (or Error). All asynchronous operation should be performed here.

        // When(fn)
        When($ => $.stack.pop())

    this function will be executed immediately.

        When(() => new Promise(...) )

    If the function returns a Promise, next statement will be executed until the promise is resolved.

        When(() => new Observable(...) )

    If the function returns an Observable, next statement will be executed until the observable is complete.

        // When(fn($, done))
        When(($, done) => {
          asyncOp(function(err, res) {
            done(err, res)
          })
        })

    Using this form, you can perform an asynchronous operation. When finished, you should call done() is success, or done(err) if the operation failed.

        // When(generatorFn)
        When(function*() { yield yieldable })

    generator function is also supported. It will be executed until it returns or throws.

        // When("result", fn)
        When('pop_result', $ => $.stack.pop() )
        Then($ => $.pop_result === 'top_item' )

    Using this form, the function will be executed immediately and the return value is assigned to $.pop_result.

        When('result1', () => Promise.resolve(1) )
        When('result2', () => Promise.reject(2) )
        Then($ => $.result1 === 1 )
        Then($ => $.result2 === 2 )

    If the function return a Promise, the promise will be resolved to a value (or an error) first, then assign the resolved value to $.result.

        When('result', () => throw new Error('oops!') )
        Then($ => $.result.message === 'oops' )

    If the function throws an error synchronously, the error will be caught and assigned to $.result.

        // When("result", fn($, done))
        When('result', ($, done) => {
          asyncOp(function(err, res) {
            done(err, res)
          })
        })

    Using this form, you can perform asynchronous operation here. If operation succeed, you should call done(null, res), and res will be assigned to $.result. If operation failed, you should call done(err), and err will be assigned to $.result.

    If the function throws an error synchronously, the error will be caught and assigned to $.result.

        // When("result", generatorFn)
        When('result', function*() { return yield yieldable })

    generator function is also supported. It will be executed until it returns or throws. The value it returns or throws will be assigned to $.result.

    If you have multiple Whens, like

        When('result1', () => stack1.pop() )
        When('result2', () => stack2.pop() )

    you can use object notation as a shorthand:

        // When({hash})
        When({
          result1: () => stack1.pop() ),
          result2: () => stack2.pop() )
        })

    Then

    A Then clause forms a mocha test case of a test suite, it is like it in classical BDD style mocha test. But Then should only contain an assertion expression, and should not have any side effects.

    Let me quote Jim's words here:

    Let me repeat that: Then clauses should not have any side effects! Then clauses with side effects are erroneous. Then clauses need to be idempotent, so that running them once, twice, a hundred times, or never does not change the state of the program. (The same is true of And and Invariant clauses).

    OK, let's see some example!

        // Then(fn)
        Then($ => expect($.result).to.be(1) )

    This form uses a 3rd-party assertion/matcher library, for example, chai.js.

        Then($ => $.result === 1 )

    This form returns a boolean expression, this is called natural assertion. if the function returns a boolean false, this test is considered fail.

        Then(($, done) =>
          asyncVerification(function(err, res) {
            done(err, res)
          })
        })

    Then clause supports asynchronous operation, but this style is discouraged for 3 reasons:

    1. it makes report hard to read
    2. natural assertion can not handle this case
    3. all asynchronous operation should be done in When clause

    And

    please refer to rspec-given's documentation

    Invariant

    please refer to rspec-given's documentation

    Execution Ordering

    please refer to rspec-given's documentation

    Natural Assertions

    respec-given supports "natural assertions" in Then, And, and Invariant blocks. Natural assertions are just boolean expressions, without additional assertion library.

    Failure Messages with Natural Assertions

    There are 2 kind of failure message, depends on whether test code is transformed.

    If the test code is not transformed, simple failure message applies. Otherwise, comprehensive failure message applies. The former simply points out which expression failed, the later show each subexpression's value, which is easier for developers to debug.

    Simple Failure Message

    example:

         Error: Then { $.stack.depth() === 0 }
    
           Invariant expression failed.
           Failing expression: Invariant { $.stack.empty() === ($.stack.depth() === 0) }
    
    

    Comprehensive Failure Message

    example:

      Error: Then { $.stack.depth() === 0 }
    
      Invariant expression failed at test/stack_spec.coffee:23:13
    
             Invariant { $.stack.empty() === ($.stack.depth() === 0) }
                           |     |    |  |      |     |    |  |
                           |     |    |  |      |     |    0  true
                           |     |    |  |      |     #function#
                           |     |    |  false  Object{_arr:[]}
                           |     |    false
                           |     #function#
                           Object{_arr:[]}
    
             expected: false
             to equal: true
    

    Checking for Errors with Natural Assertions

    If you wish to see if the result of a When clause is an Error, you can use the following:

    When('result', () => badAction())
    Then($ => Failure(CustomError, /message/).matches($.result))
    Then($ => Failure(CustomError).matches($.result))
    Then($ => Failure(/message/).matches($.result))
    

    Transform test code

    What is a natural assertion loader?

    Natural assertion loader is a tool which analysis test code's Then expression, gather context information, and generate code that carries these information. When assertion failed (return false), these information are used to evaluate failed Then clause's subexpression and generate diagnosis message for you.

    Why tooling?

    Because in JavaScript, lexical binding can not be "captured" during execution time. Lexical binding is resolved at lex time, it's the world view of specific block of code. You have no way to share this view to others (in JavaScript). For example:

        var x = 1
        Then(() => x == 0 )

    Then received a function, which returns false. Even Then can know x's existence by analysis fn.toString(), Then have no way to access x. No.

    This is a meta-programming problem, which can not be solved in JavaScript itself. That's why we need a loader (preprocessor, transpiler, instrumenter, whatever you like to call it).

    When do I need it?

    When you use natural assertion, transformed test code would generate more helpful error message for you.

    On the other hand, if you are using assertion library (like node.js built-in assert, chai.js, expect.js, or shouldjs), which provide their diagnosis message already, then you don't need natural assertion loader.

    Ok. Tell me how to use it.

    there are 3 Node.js loader out of the box:

    • JavaScript loader

      mocha --ui respec-given --require respec-given/na-loader
    • CoffeeScript loader

      mocha --ui respec-given --require respec-given/na-loader/coffee
    • LiveScript loader

      mocha --ui respec-given --require respec-given/na-loader/ls

    Install

    npm i respec-given

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    36

    Version

    1.2.1

    License

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