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nevis

0.5.0 • Public • Published
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Nevis brings more of the Object-Orientated Programming (OOP) model to JavaScript.

Build Status Coverage Dev Dependency Status License Release

Install

Install using the package manager for your desired environment(s):

$ npm install --save nevis
# OR:
$ bower install --save nevis

You'll need to have at least Node.js and you'll only need Bower if you want to install that way instead of using npm. While equals should be compatible with all versions of Node.js, it is only tested against version 4 and above.

If you want to simply download the file to be used in the browser you can find them below:

If you're only wanting support for inheritance, you can use the lite version instead:

API

Inheritance

Nevis' primary function is to provide clean implementation of single inheritance.

Available in lite version

Nevis.extend([name][, constructor][, prototype][, statics])

Extends the constructor to which this method is associated with the prototype and/or statics provided.

If name is provided, it will be used as the class name and can be accessed via a special class_ property on the child constructor, otherwise the class name of the super constructor will be used instead. The class name may also be used string representation for instances of the child constructor (via toString), but this is not applicable to the lite version of Nevis.

If constructor is provided, it will be used as the constructor for the child, otherwise a simple constructor which only calls the super constructor will be used instead.

The super constructor can be accessed via a special super_ property on the child constructor.

It is very flexible and can be used to extend classes:

var Base = Nevis.extend('Base', function(attributes) {
  this.attributes = attributes || {};
}, {
  getAttribute: function(name) {
    return this.attributes[name];
  },
  setAttribute: function(name, value) {
    this.attributes[name] = value;
  }
});
 
var Person = Base.extend('Person', function(name, attributes) {
  Person.super_.call(this, attributes);
 
  this.name = name;
 
  Person.people.push(this);
}, {
  greet: function(name) {
    return 'Hello ' + name + ', my name is ' + this.name;
  }
}, {
  people: []
});
 
var bob = new Person('Bob', { age: 58 });
 
bob.name;
//=> "Bob"
bob.greet('Suzie');
//=> "Hello Suzie, my name is Bob"
bob.getAttribute('age');
//=> 58
Person.people;
//=> [ "Bob" ]

Also, this can be used to extend external classes such as EventEmitter:

var EventEmitter = require('events').EventEmitter;
var Nevis = require('nevis');
 
var Events = Nevis.extend('Events', function() {
  EventEmitter.call(this);
}, EventEmitter.prototype, EventEmitter);

However, this last approach has the caveats of instanceof not identifying this kind of inheritance and super_ will only reference the constructor that is extended.

Equality

Nevis adds a means of testing whether an object is equal to another that's more advanced than just == or ===.

Unavailable in lite version

Nevis.prototype.equals(obj)

Returns whether the instance is "equal to" the specified obj.

This method implements an equivalence relation on non-null object references:

  • It is reflexive: for any non-null reference value x, x.equals(x) should return true.
  • It is symmetric: for any non-null reference values x and y, x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true.
  • It is transitive: for any non-null reference values x, y, and z, if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true, then x.equals(z) should return true.
  • It is consistent: for any non-null reference values x and y, multiple invocations of x.equals(y) consistently return true or consistently return false, provided no information used in equals comparisons on the objects is modified.
  • For any non-null reference value x, x.equals(null) should return false.

The default implementation of this method is the most discriminating possible equivalence relation on objects; that is, for any non-null reference values x and y, this method returns true if, and only if, x and y are exactly equal (x === y has the value true).

Please note that it is generally necessary to override the Nevis.prototype.hashCode method whenever this method is overridden, so as to maintain the general contract for the Nevis.prototype.hashCode method, which states that equal objects must have equal hash codes.

var Person = Nevis.extend('Person', function(name, age) {
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
}, {
  greet: function(name) {
    return 'Hello ' + name + ', my name is ' + this.name;
  }
});
var bob = new Person('Bob', 58);
var suzie = new Person('Suzie', 30);
 
bob.equals(bob);
//=> true
bob.equals(new Person('Bob', 58));
//=> false
bob.equals(suzie);
//=> false
bob.equals(null);
//=> false
bob.equals(undefined);
//=> false

Continue reading for information on how to create a good equals for complex classes using Nevis.EqualsBuilder.


Nevis also provides a null-safe static method for testing the equality of two values of any type.

Nevis.equals(value, other[, options])

Returns whether the specified value is "equal to" the other provided using the given options.

Consequently, if both arguments are null, true is returned and if exactly one argument is null, false is returned. Otherwise, this method implements an equivalence relation on non-null object references in the same way as Nevis.prototype.equals.

If neither value is null and both are not exactly (strictly) equal, this method will first check whether value has a method named "equals" and, if so, return the result of calling that method with other passed to it. If no "equals" method exists on value or if the ignoreEquals option is enabled, it will attempt to test the equality internally based on their type.

Plain objects are tested recursively for their properties and collections (e.g. arrays) are also tested recursively for their elements.

The options parameter is entirely optional and supports the following:

Option Type Default Description
filterProperty Function N/A A function to be called to filter properties for objects to determine whether they should be tested. Not called for method properties when ignoreMethods is true.
ignoreCase Boolean false Whether to ignore case when testing equality for strings.
ignoreEquals Boolean false Whether to ignore the equals method on value, when present
ignoreInherited Boolean false Whether to ignore inherited properties when testing equality for objects.
ignoreMethods Boolean false Whether to ignore method properties when testing equality for objects.
var obj = {
  foo: 'bar',
  doSomething: function() {
    return 123;
  }
};
 
Nevis.equals(obj, obj);
//=> true
Nevis.equals(obj, {
  foo: 'bar',
  doSomething: function() {
    return 321;
  }
});
//=> false
Nevis.equals(obj, {
  foo: 'bar',
  doSomething: function() {
    return 321;
  }
}, { ignoreMethods: true });
//=> true
Nevis.equals(bob, bob);
//=> true
Nevis.equals(bob, new Person('Bob', 58));
//=> false
Nevis.equals(bob, suzie);
//=> false
Nevis.equals('foo', 'foo');
//=> true
Nevis.equals('foo', 'FOO');
//=> false
Nevis.equals('foo', 'FOO', { ignoreCase: true });
//=> true
Nevis.equals(NaN, NaN);
//=> true
Nevis.equals(null, null);
//=> true
Nevis.equals(undefined, undefined);
//=> true
Nevis.equals(null, undefined);
//=> false
Nevis.equals(bob, null);
//=> false
Nevis.equals(bob, undefined);
//=> false

Nevis provides a builder to support creating good equals for complex classes.

Unavailable in lite version

Nevis.EqualsBuilder()

The best way to describe it is by using an example that demonstrates it's API:

var Animal = Nevis.extend('Animal', function(species) {
  this.species = species;
}, {
  equals: function(obj) {
    if (obj == null) {
      return false;
    }
 
    return new Nevis.EqualsBuilder()
      .append(this.species, obj.species)
      .build();
  }
});
var Human = Nevis.extend('Human', function(name, age) {
  Human.super_.call(this, 'human');
 
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
}, {
  equals: function(obj) {
    if (obj == null) {
      return false;
    }
 
    return new Nevis.EqualsBuilder()
      .appendSuper(Human.super_.prototype.equals.call(this, obj))
      .append(this.name, obj.name)
      .append(this.age, obj.age)
      .build();
  }
});
var Lion = Nevis.extend('Lion', function(name, age) {
  Lion.super_.call(this, 'lion');
 
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
}, {
  equals: function(obj) {
    if (obj == null) {
      return false;
    }
 
    return new Nevis.EqualsBuilder()
      .appendSuper(Lion.super_.prototype.equals.call(this, obj))
      .append(this.name, obj.name)
      .append(this.age, obj.age)
      .build();
  }
});
var humanBob = new Human('Bob', 58);
var humanSuzie = new Human('Suzie', 30);
var lionBob = new Lion('Bob', 58);
 
humanBob.equals(humanBob);
//=> true
humanBob.equals(new Human('Bob', 58));
//=> true
humanBob.equals(lionBob);
//=> false
humanBob.equals(humanSuzie);
//=> false
humanSuzie.name = 'Bob';
humanSuzie.age = 58;
humanBob.equals(humanSuzie);
//=> true
humanBob.equals(null);
//=> false
humanBob.equals(undefined);
//=> false

When using Nevis.EqualsBuilder in an equals method, it's recommended to use Nevis.HashCodeBuilder in the hashCode method on the same object.

Hash Codes

Nevis introduces JavaScript to the Java concept of hash codes.

Unavailable in lite version

Nevis.prototype.hashCode()

Returns the hash code for the instance. This method is supported for the benefit of hash tables.

The general contract of hashCode is:

  • Whenever it is invoked on the same instance more than once during an execution of an application, the hashCode method must consistently return the same number, provided no information used to generate the hash code on the instance is modified. This number need not remain consistent from one execution of an application to another execution of the same application.
  • If two instances are equal, that calling the hashCode method on each of the two instances must produce the same number result.
  • It is not required that if two instances are unequal, that calling the hashCode method on each of the two instances must produce distinct number results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct number results for unequal instances may improve the performance of hash tables.

The default implementation of this method will attempt to generate the hash code based on all of the fields on the instance. Please note that it is generally necessary to override the Nevis.prototype.equals method whenever this method is overridden, so as to maintain the above contract where equal objects must have equal hash codes.

var Person = Nevis.extend('Person', function(name) {
  this.name = name;
}, {
  greet: function(name) {
    return 'Hello ' + name + ', my name is ' + this.name;
  }
});
var bob = new Person('Bob');
var suzie = new Person('Suzie');
 
bob.hashCode();
//=> -469006311
suzie.hashCode();
//=> -388699942
bob.hashCode() === new Person('Bob').hashCode();
//=> true

Continue reading for information on how to generate hash codes for complex classes using Nevis.HashCodeBuilder.


Nevis also provides a null-safe static method for generating a hash code for any value.

Nevis.hashCode(value[, options])

Returns a hash code for the specified value using the options provided. This method is supported for the benefit of hash tables and it has the same general contract as Nevis.prototype.hashCode.

If value is null, this method will always return zero. Otherwise, it will check whether value has a method named "hashCode" and, if so, return the result of calling that method. If no "hashCode" method exists on value or if the ignoreHashCode option is enabled, it will attempt to generate the hash code internally based on its type.

Plain objects are hashed recursively for their properties and collections (e.g. arrays) are also hashed recursively for their elements.

The options parameter is entirely optional and supports the following:

Option Type Default Description
allowCache Boolean true Whether to allow hash codes generated for certain immutable types to be cached for faster re-generation.
filterProperty Function N/A A function to be called to filter properties for objects to determine whether they should be included. Not called for method properties when ignoreMethods is true.
ignoreHashCode Boolean false Whether to ignore the hashCode method on value, when present
ignoreInherited Boolean false Whether to ignore inherited properties when generating hash codes for objects.
ignoreMethods Boolean false Whether to ignore method properties when generating hash codes for objects.
var obj = {
  foo: 'bar',
  doSomething: function() {
    return 123;
  }
};
 
Nevis.hashCode(obj);
//=> 1343675198
Nevis.hashCode(obj, { ignoreMethods: true });
//=> 61653
Nevis.hashCode(bob);
//=> -469006311
Nevis.hashCode('foo');
//=> 101574
Nevis.hashCode(null);
//=> 0
Nevis.hashCode(undefined);
//=> 0

Nevis provides a builder to support generating hash codes for complex classes.

Unavailable in lite version

Nevis.HashCodeBuilder([initial][, multipler])

Ideally the initial value and multiplier should be different for each class, however, this is not vital. Prime numbers are preferred, especially for multiplier.

If specified, both initial and multiplier must be odd numbers.

The best way to describe it is by using an example that demonstrates it's API:

var Animal = Nevis.extend('Animal', function(species) {
  this.species = species;
}, {
  hashCode: function() {
    return new Nevis.HashCodeBuilder()
      .append(this.species)
      .build();
  }
});
var Human = Nevis.extend('Human', function(name, age) {
  Human.super_.call(this, 'human');
 
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
}, {
  hashCode: function() {
    return new Nevis.HashCodeBuilder()
      .appendSuper(Human.super_.prototype.hashCode.call(this))
      .append(this.name)
      .append(this.age)
      .build();
  }
});
var Lion = Nevis.extend('Lion', function(name, age) {
  Lion.super_.call(this, 'lion');
 
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
}, {
  hashCode: function() {
    return new Nevis.HashCodeBuilder()
      .appendSuper(Lion.super_.prototype.hashCode.call(this))
      .append(this.name)
      .append(this.age)
      .build();
  }
});
var humanBob = new Human('Bob', 58);
var humanSuzie = new Human('Suzie', 30);
var lionBob = new Lion('Bob', 58);
 
humanBob.hashCode();
//=> 1795252862788
humanBob.hashCode() === new Human('Bob', 58).hashCode();
//=> true
lionBob.hashCode();
//=> -79783715387
humanSuzie.hashCode();
//=> 1908159460360
humanSuzie.name = 'Bob';
humanSuzie.age = 58;
humanBob.hashCode() === humanSuzie.hashCode();
//=> true

When using Nevis.HashCodeBuilder in a hashCode method, it's recommended to use Nevis.EqualsBuilder in the equals method on the same object.

String Representations

Nevis builds on top of JavaScript's toString method to make it easier to use.

Unavailable in lite version

Nevis.prototype.toString()

Returns a string representation of the instance.

In general, this method returns a string that "textually represents" the instance. The result should be a concise but informative representation that is easy for a person to read.

The default implementation of this method will return a string consisting of the instance's class name, the at-sign character (@), and the hexadecimal representation of the hash code of the instance.

var RandomHolder = Nevis.extend('RandomHolder', function() {
  this.value = Math.random() * 100;
})
var random = new RandomHolder();
 
random.toString();
//=> "RandomHolder@f9fa743"
 
var UnnamedObject = Nevis.extend({
  foo: 'bar',
  fu: 'baz'
});
var unnamed = new UnnamedObject();
 
unnamed.toString();
//=> "Nevis@-3fff8d24"

Nevis also provides a null-safe static method for getting string representations of any value.

Nevis.toString(value)

Returns the result of calling the toString method on the specified value when it is non-null.

If value is null or undefined, this method will return "null" or "undefined" respectively.

Nevis.toString(random);
//=> "RandomHolder@f9fa743"
Nevis.toString(123);
//=> "123"
Nevis.toString(null);
//=> "null"
Nevis.toString(undefined);
//=> "undefined"

Why Nevis?

Because we love Scotland and it is named after Ben Nevis since we felt like we conquered a mountain when creating this library.

Migrating from Oopsy

If you've been using Oopsy (the former name for Nevis), then you should find migrating to Nevis really easy. All you really need to do is find and replace "Oopsy" with "Nevis" and you'll have all of the old functionality and more.

If you don't want all of the additional functionality and only care about inheritance, you can use the lite version of Nevis.

Bugs

If you have any problems with Nevis or would like to see changes currently in development you can do so here.

Contributors

If you want to contribute, you're a legend! Information on how you can do so can be found in CONTRIBUTING.md. We want your suggestions and pull requests!

A list of Nevis contributors can be found in AUTHORS.md.

License

See LICENSE.md for more information on our MIT license.

Copyright !ninja

Install

npm i nevis

DownloadsWeekly Downloads

34

Version

0.5.0

License

MIT

Last publish

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