0.1.2 • Public • Published


    Intuitive Dependency Injection (DI) library for Node.js, written in JavaScript and weighing less than 10 KB. Ironically, Cerise does not depend on any package.

    API documentation -- Examples -- FAQ


    Install with npm or yarn

    $ npm install cerise
    $ yarn add cerise

    Both CommonJS and ES modules builds are included; the latter will be automatically selected if your build system supports it.


    Using Cerise is dead simple. There are two concepts you'll need to understand first: containers and factories.


    A container (also known as an injector) is a master object that knows how to create services, thanks to factories.

    const { createContainer, constant, factory, service } = require('cerise');
    // Create a container and immediately register a factory
    // for the `name` service.
    const container = createContainer({
      package_name: constant('cerise'),
    // You can also register a service for an existing container.
    container.register('package_name', constant('cerise'));
    // You can retrieve services using either container as a
    // function, or its `proxy` property.
    assert('cerise' === container('package_name'));
    assert('cerise' === container.proxy.package_name);

    There are multiple ways to declare a service: using the constant, factory and service helpers.


    When using constant you cannot depend on an other service. You can register any value: a number, string, function, etc.

    container.register('base_url', constant('https://npmjs.com'));
    container.register('concat', constant((...args) => args.join('')));
    assert('string' === typeof container('base_url'));
    assert('function' === typeof container('concat'));


    If you need to depend on an other service, use a factory. factory takes a function that will be passed container.proxy (which can be destructured to access other services) and returns a service.

      factory(proxy => {
        return proxy.concat(proxy.base_url, '/', proxy.package_name);
    // Using destructuring
      factory(({ concat, base_url: baseUrl, package_name: packageName }) => {
        return concat(baseUrl, '/', packageName);
    // Alternatively, call the proxy as a function
      factory(inject => {
        return inject('concat')(inject('base_url'), '/', inject('package_name'));
    assert('https://npmjs.com/cerise' === container('package_url'));

    You'll notice that constant(x) is equivalent to factory(() => x): it's just sugar.


    Lastly, service is passed a class and will return an instance on retrieval. Use it if you're more familiar with OOP.

    class PackageUrl {
      constructor({ concat, base_url: baseUrl }) {
        this._concat = concat;
        this._baseUrl = baseUrl;
      get(packageName) {
        return this._concat(this._baseUrl, '/', packageName);
    container.register('package_url', service(PackageUrl));
    assert('https://npmjs.com/cerise' === container('package_url').get('cerise'));

    Once again, it's just sugar: service(T) is equivalent to factory(proxy => new T(proxy)).


    Oftentimes you'll want to create a scope from a container. Scopes inherit their parent and their registered service, but can also have their own service. For instance, if you're using Express, you might want to have a master container to store your database connexion, and another container for request-specific data.

    const express = require('express');
    const { Database } = require('sqlite3');
    const { createContainer, constant } = require('cerise');
    const app = express();
    const container = createContainer({
      db: constant(new Database(':memory:')),
    // For each request, create a scope and fetch session data.
    app.use((req, res, next) => {
      const id = req.get('x-session-id');
      const db = container('db');
      req.scope = container.scope();
      db.get('select * from sessions where id = ?', [id], (err, session) => {
        // Only alter the request scope, not the parent container
        req.scope.register('session', constant(session));
    // Session data is available on child scope.
    app.get('/session', (req, res) => {
    // Parent container services are also available on child scope.
    app.get('/time', (req, res) => {
      const db = req.scope('db');
      db.get('select current_timestamp as time', (err, { time }) => {
        res.json({ time });


    default lifetime

    By default (except for constant) the factory will be called each time you wish to retrieve a value from a factory.

    // Each resolution will result in a new Thing instance being created.
    container.register('thing', service(class Thing {}));
    const foo = container('thing');
    const bar = container('thing');
    assert(foo !== bar);


    You may however wish to specify a lifetime to your factory in order to cache its result.

    // Now the first instance will be cached and returned each time.
    container.register('thing', service(class Thing {}).singleton());
    const foo = container('thing');
    const bar = container('thing');
    assert(foo === bar);


    Singletons only make sense on the root container; if you wish to cache a service for scopes you will want to use the scoped lifetime qualifier:

    const winston = require('winston');
          transports: winston.transports.Console(),
    // Create a scope on every request
    app.use((req, res, next) => {
      req.scope = container.scope();
    // Register a *scoped* logger (with request id metadata)
    app.use((req, res, next) => {
        factory(({ logger }) =>
          logger.child({ requestId: req.get('x-request-id') }),
    // Logging middleware
    app.use((req, res, next) => {
      const start = Date.now();
      const logger = req.scope('reqlog');
      req.on('finish', () => {
        const elapsed = Date.now() - start;
        logger.info('[%s] %s %s', elapsed, req.method, req.path);

    Saving and restoring state

    Root containers' state can be saved and restored which can be useful for testing. For instance, in Mocha's beforeEach and afterEach hooks:

    describe('My API', () => {
      beforeEach(() => container.save());
      afterEach(() => container.restore());
      it('...', () => {
        // package_url service will be 'nope' but only for this particular test
        container.register('package_url', constant('nope'));


    Middlewares: Cerise provides middlewares for Express and Koa.
    See the API documentation.

    Controllers: since calling req.scope gets old really fast, Cerise also provides a controller helper -- with an async error handler for convenience. Pass it a callback, and it will get called with req.scope.proxy, req, res and next.
    See the API documentation.


    How to overwrite a parent service in a scope?

    You can register a service with the same name:

    const parent = createContainer();
    parent.register('scopeName', constant('parent'));
    const child = parent.scope();
    child.register('scopeName', constant('child'));
    assert('parent' === parent('scopeName'));
    assert('child' === child('scopeName'));

    Can a child scope service depend on a parent scope service of the same name?

    Yes, but you cannot depend directly on the parent service.

    parent.register('breadcrumb', constant('/'));
    // This will break: `breadcrumb` on the child cannot depend on `breadcrumb`.
      factory(({ breadcrumb }) => breadcrumb + 'child/'),
    // Workaround #1: access parent scope directly
    child.register('breadcrumb', factory(() => parent('breadcrumb') + 'child/'));
    // Workaround #2 (preferred): register the parent as a child service
    child.register('$parent', constant(parent.scope));
      factory(({ $parent: { breadcrumb } }) => breadcrumb + 'child/'),


    Head over to the examples directory for in-depth examples.


    Constructive feedback is always welcome! Feel free to create issues if you have any question, suggestion or bug reports. A pull request is also always appreciated.

    Clone this repository, run npm install or yarn to install the development dependencies, launch npm test -- -w or yarn test -w and start hacking!

    Before you submit your pull request, please make sur you've run Prettier (npm run lint or yarn lint) and that your test coverage is at 100% (npm run coverage or yarn coverage).


    npm i cerise

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