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bswap

1.3.2 • Public • Published

node-bswap

Build Status

The fastest function to swap bytes (a.k.a. reverse the byte ordering, change endianness) of TypedArrays in-place for Node.js and browsers. Uses SIMD when available. Works with all of the TypedArray types. Also works on Buffers if you construct a TypedArray view on the underlying ArrayBuffer (see below).

Install:

$ npm install bswap

Use:

const bswap = require("bswap");
const x = new Uint16Array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]);
bswap(x);
// now: Uint16Array [ 256, 512, 768, 1024, 1280, 1536, 1792, 2048 ]
 
// With buffers:
const b = Buffer.alloc(128);
// This constructs a "view" on the same memory; it does not allocate new memory:
const ui32 = new Uint32Array(b.buffer, b.byteOffset, b.byteLength / Uint32Array.BYTES_PER_ELEMENT);
bswap(ui32);

In Node.js when native code and a recent x86 or ARM processor is available, this library uses the fastest available SIMD instructions (PSHUFB (SSSE3) or VPSHUFB (AVX2), REVn (NEON)), which allow processing multiple array elements simultaneously for maximum speed.

Native code requires one of:

  • MSVC 2015 or later
  • Clang 3.4.x or later
  • GCC 4.8.x or later
  • ICC 16 or later

In the browser or when native code is unavailable, this library falls back to the fastest JavaScript implementation. The JavaScript implementation is also always explicitly available:

const bswap = require("bswap").js; // Use javascript implementation explicitly

Benchmarks

Showing millions of elements processed per second when invoked with a 10,000-element array. (Run the benchmark suite to see results for varying array lengths and other libraries.) Ran on an Intel i7-7700HQ 2.80 GHz processor (AVX2 supported) or Cavium ThunderX 2.0 GHz processor (ARM NEON); Node.js v8.x; Windows 10 (MSVC) or Ubuntu 16.04 (GCC, Clang).

compiler C++ JS Native:JS Node.js Native:Node
16 bit types (Uint16Array, Int16Array)
MSVC 2015 32,286 625 51.7x 12,141 2.7x
GCC 8.1 31,549 (same) 50.5x 1,507 20.9x
Clang 6 30,238 (same) 48.4x (same) 20.1x
GCC-ARM 2,677 183 14.6x 297 9.0x
32 bits types (Uint32Array, Int32Array, Float32Array)
MSVC 2015 12,558 342 36.7x 5,840 2.2x
GCC 8.1 12,074 (same) 35.3x 2,361 5.1x
Clang 6 12,587 (same) 36.8x (same) 5.3x
GCC-ARM 670 94 7.1x 249 2.7x
64 bit types (Float64Array)
MSVC 2015 6,841 179 38.2x 3,043 2.2x
GCC 8.1 6,528 (same) 36.5x 1,790 3.6x
Clang 6 6,598 (same) 36.9x (same) 3.7x
GCC-ARM 382 49 7.8x 213 1.8x

Optimization notes

Despite how simple this procedure is, it is very difficult to get all compilers to produce optimal code for all instruction sets. (In particular, GCC and clang seem to have inherent optimizations for swapping 16-bit types, which can conflict with my own optimizations; and they unroll loops to different degrees.)

The AVX2 version sustains just over 23 bytes/cycle (coming from L1) with 16-bit types. I haven't gotten the 32-bit types to achieve the same throughput as even the 64-bit types.

There's an AVX-512 implementation that is disabled by default because it is ~2 to 15% slower than the AVX2 implementation. The CPU I tested on throttles by ~20% when running the AVX512 vs. AVX2 version, but the vector width increases by 2x, so I'm not sure what's up.

Below shows GCC 8.1 and LLVM Clang 6.0 run on the same Skylake SP machine with each of the three ISAs and three scalar types. (The Node.js column is shown so the Native column can be normalized to it.) Values are ops/sec.

╔═══════╤════════╤═════════════════╤════════╤═══════╤═══════════╗
║ Width │ ISE    │ Compiler        │ This   │ Node  │ this:node ║
╠═══════╪════════╪═════════════════╪════════╪═══════╪═══════════╣
║ 16    │ AVX512 │ GCC8            │ 20,041 │ 1,225 │ 16.36     ║
║ 16    │ AVX2   │ GCC8            │ 23,435 │ 1,222 │ 19.18     ║
║ 16    │ SSSE3  │ GCC8            │ 14,322 │ 1,231 │ 11.63     ║
║ 16    │ AVX512 │ Clang6          │ 19,246 │ 1,231 │ 15.63     ║
║ 16    │ AVX2   │ Clang6          │ 23,018 │ 1,234 │ 18.65     ║
║ 16    │ SSSE3  │ Clang6          │ 14,062 │ 1,228 │ 11.45     ║
║ 16    │ AVX2   │ Clang6-nointrin │ 22,923 │ 1,207 │ 18.99     ║
╠═══════╪════════╪═════════════════╪════════╪═══════╪═══════════╣
║ 32    │ AVX512 │ GCC8            │ 8,378  │ 1,904 │ 4.40      ║
║ 32    │ AVX2   │ GCC8            │ 8,459  │ 1,907 │ 4.44      ║
║ 32    │ SSSE3  │ GCC8            │ 6,139  │ 1,912 │ 3.21      ║
║ 32    │ AVX512 │ Clang6          │ 8,383  │ 1,917 │ 4.37      ║
║ 32    │ AVX2   │ Clang6          │ 8,730  │ 1,899 │ 4.60      ║
║ 32    │ SSSE3  │ Clang6          │ 5,841  │ 1,925 │ 3.03      ║
╠═══════╪════════╪═════════════════╪════════╪═══════╪═══════════╣
║ 64    │ AVX512 │ GCC8            │ 4,191  │ 1,405 │ 2.98      ║
║ 64    │ AVX2   │ GCC8            │ 4,781  │ 1,441 │ 3.32      ║
║ 64    │ SSSE3  │ GCC8            │ 3,263  │ 1,441 │ 2.26      ║
║ 64    │ AVX512 │ Clang6          │ 4,203  │ 1,442 │ 2.91      ║
║ 64    │ AVX2   │ Clang6          │ 4,890  │ 1,450 │ 3.37      ║
║ 64    │ SSSE3  │ Clang6          │ 3,289  │ 1,390 │ 2.37      ║
╚═══════╧════════╧═════════════════╧════════╧═══════╧═══════════╝

Clang6-nointrin: __builtin_bswap16() called in a loop. The bswap builtin is only
fast for 16-bit types; the other sizes are extremely slow. This appears to be
from extensive and very tidy loop unrolling.

Comparison to other libraries

Library Operand In-Place 64-bit Type Support Browser Speed (vs. bswap)*
bswap (this) TypedArray yes yes yes 1.00
node buffer.swap16/32/64 Buffer yes since 6.3.0 no 0.05 to 0.38
network-byte-order Number/[Octet] no no yes 0.010
endian-toggle Buffer no yes no 0.0056

* Higher is better. For 16-bit types, 10k-element arrays. Range given for Node.js version reflects Windows vs. Linux benchmark.

  • Node.js' built-in buffer.swap16|32|64 methods (16/32 since v5.10.0; 64 since 6.3.0). Operates in-place. No browser support. Slower except for tiny arrays (where it uses the JS implementation).

    In 6.3.0 I added some optimizations to Node.js' implementation. The optimizations are effective on Windows, but GCC does not do the same automatic vectorization that MSVC does, nor does Node's default build config enable the newer SIMD instructions that this library uses.

    Usage
    > Buffer.from(typedArray.buffer).swap16()
  • endian-toggle. Simple usage, operates on a Node.js Buffer, handles any byte size, returns a new buffer (does not operate in-place).

    Usage
    > const x = new Uint16Array([2048])
    > toggle(Buffer.from(x.buffer), x.BYTES_PER_ELEMENT * 8)
    <Buffer d2 04 09 07>
  • network-byte-order. Operates on a single value at a time (i.e. needs to be looped to operate on an array) and has separate hton and ntoh methods, which do effectively the same thing but have different syntaxes. It can operate on strings, but it cannot swap 64-bit types.

    Usage
    // Using hton
    > const b = [];
    > nbo.htons(b, 0, 2048);
    > b
    [8, 0]
     
    // or using ntoh
    > const x = new Uint16Array([2048])
    > nbo.ntohs(new Uint8Array(x.buffer, x.byteOffset, 2), 0)
    8
    > const z = new Uint16Array([8])
    > new Uint8Array(z.buffer, z.byteOffset, 2)
    Uint8Array [ 8, 0 ]

Install

npm i bswap

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20

Version

1.3.2

License

MIT

Unpacked Size

22.8 kB

Total Files

9

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