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5.0.1 • Public • Published
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Media Queries with superpowers Build Status

mq()+ is a Sass library that helps you compose media queries in an elegant way.

Sass MQ was crafted in-house at the Guardian and is improved upon by many contributors.

This fork provides various, often much-requested, enhancements over the original. If you already use @kaelig's mixin, you know how to use MQ+.

Note: This fork is always one minor version ahead of the primary package.

Features

  • moved core operations from the mixin to a function
  • this separation allows media queries to be chained through the $and and new $or parameters
  • added a $media-feature parameter to allow media queries to target a different feature (device dimensions, aspect ratios, color, and resolution)

A variant of the mixin using Jacket, for rasterization, can be found here: mj().

Here is a very basic example:

$mq-breakpoints: (
    mobile:  320px,
    tablet:  740px,
    desktop: 980px,
    wide:    1300px
);
 
@import 'mq';
 
.foo {
    @include mq($from: mobile, $until: tablet) {
        background: red;
    }
    @include mq($from: tablet, $or: mq($until: mobile)) {
        background: green;
    }
    @include mq($from: 600px, $media-feature: height) {
        font-size: 1.25em;
    }
}

Compiles to:

@media (min-width: 20em) and (max-width: 46.24em) {
  .foo {
    background: red;
  }
}
@media (min-width: 46.25em), (max-width: 19.99em) {
  .foo {
    background: green;
  }
}
@media (min-height: 37.5em) {
  .foo {
    font-size: 125em;
  }
}

Sass MQ was crafted in-house at the Guardian. Today, many more companies and developers are using it in their projects: see who uses Sass MQ.

How to use it

The original mq() can be played with on SassMeister: @import 'mq';.

  1. Install:

    • with Bower: bower install mcaskill-sass-mq --save
    • with npm: npm install @mcaskill/sass-mq --save supports eyeglass
    • with yarn: yarn add @mcaskill/sass-mq supports eyeglass

    OR Download _mq.scss into your Sass project.

  2. Import the partial in your Sass files and override default settings with your own preferences before the file is imported:

    // To enable support for browsers that do not support @media queries, 
    // (IE <= 8, Firefox <= 3, Opera <= 9) set $mq-responsive to false 
    // Create a separate stylesheet served exclusively to these browsers, 
    // meaning @media queries will be rasterized, relying on the cascade itself 
    $mq-responsive: true;
     
    // Name your breakpoints in a way that creates a ubiquitous language 
    // across team members. It will improve communication between 
    // stakeholders, designers, developers, and testers. 
    $mq-breakpoints: (
        mobile:  320px,
        tablet:  740px,
        desktop: 980px,
        wide:    1300px,
     
        // Tweakpoints
        desktopAd: 810px,
        mobileLandscape: 480px
    );
     
    // Define the breakpoint from the $mq-breakpoints list that should 
    // be used as the target width when outputting a static stylesheet 
    // (when $mq-responsive is set to 'false'). 
    $mq-static-breakpoint: desktop;
     
    // If you want to display the currently active breakpoint in the top 
    // right corner of your site during development, add the breakpoints 
    // to this list, ordered by width. For example: (mobile, tablet, desktop). 
    $mq-show-breakpoints: (mobile, mobileLandscape, tablet, desktop, wide);
     
    // If _mq.scss is in your project: 
    @import 'path/to/mq';
    // With eyeglass: 
    @import '@mcaskill/sass-mq';
    // With webpack (and boilerplates such as create-react-app) 
    @import '~@mcaskill/sass-mq';
  3. Play around with mq() (see below)

Responsive mode ON (default)

mq() takes up to three optional parameters:

  • $from: inclusive min-* boundary
  • $until: exclusive max-* boundary
  • $and: additional custom directives
  • $or: alternate custom directives
  • $media-feature: either width or height of the output device's rendering surface

Note that $until as a keyword is a hard limit i.e. it's breakpoint - 1.

.responsive {
    // Apply styling to mobile and upwards 
    @include mq($from: mobile) {
        color: red;
    }
    // Apply styling up to devices smaller than tablets (exclude tablets) 
    @include mq($until: tablet) {
        color: blue;
    }
    // Same thing, in landscape orientation 
    @include mq($until: tablet, $and: '(orientation: landscape)') {
        color: hotpink;
    }
    // Apply styling to tablets up to desktop (exclude desktop) 
    @include mq(tablet, desktop) {
        color: green;
    }
}

Responsive mode OFF

To enable support for browsers that do not support @media queries, (IE <= 8, Firefox <= 3, Opera <= 9) set $mq-responsive: false.

Tip: create a separate stylesheet served exclusively to these browsers, for example with conditional comments.

When @media queries are rasterized, browsers rely on the cascade itself. Learn more about this technique on Jake’s blog.

To avoid rasterizing styles intended for displays larger than what those older browsers typically run on, set $mq-static-breakpoint to match a breakpoint from the $mq-breakpoints list. The default is desktop.

The static output will only include @media queries that start at or span this breakpoint and which have no custom $and directives:

$mq-responsive:        false;
$mq-static-breakpoint: desktop;
 
.static {
    // Queries that span or start at desktop are compiled: 
    @include mq($from: mobile) {
        color: lawngreen;
    }
    @include mq(tablet, wide) {
        color: seagreen;
    }
    @include mq($from: desktop) {
        color: forestgreen;
    }
 
    // But these queries won’t be compiled: 
    @include mq($until: tablet) {
        color: indianred;
    }
    @include mq($until: tablet, $and: '(orientation: landscape)') {
        color: crimson;
    }
    @include mq(mobile, desktop) {
        color: firebrick;
    }
}

Verbose and shortand notations

Sometimes you’ll want to be extra verbose (for example, if you’re developing a library based on top of sass-mq), however for readability in a codebase, the shorthand notation is recommended.

All of these examples output the exact same thing, and are here for reference so you can use the notation that best matches your needs:

// Verbose 
@include mq( 
    $from: false, 
    $until: desktop, 
    $and: false, 
    $or: false 
    $media-feature: width, 
    $media-type: $mq-media-type // defaults to 'all' 
) {
    .foo {}
}
 
// Omitting argument names 
@include mq( 
    false, 
    desktop, 
    false, 
    false, 
    width, 
    $mq-media-type 
) {
    .foo {}
}
 
// Omitting tailing arguments 
@include mq(false, desktop) {
    .foo {}
}
 
// Recommended 
@include mq($until: desktop) {
    .foo {}
}

See the detailed API documentation

Adding custom breakpoints

@include mq-add-breakpoint(tvscreen, 1920px);
 
.hide-on-tv {
    @include mq(tvscreen) {
        display: none;
    }
}

Changing media type

If you want to specify a media type, for example to output styles for screens only, set $mq-media-type. Alternatively, mq() takes an optional $media-type parameter for specific types:

SCSS

$mq-media-type: screen;
 
.screen-only-element {
    @include mq(mobile) {
        width: 300px;
    }
 
    @include mq($media-type: print) {
        display: none;
    }
}

CSS output

@media screen and (max-width: 19.99em) {
    .screen-only-element {
        width: 300px;
    }
}
 
@media print {
    .screen-only-element {
        display: none;
    }
}

Seeing the currently active breakpoint

While developing, it can be nice to always know which breakpoint is active. To achieve this, set the $mq-show-breakpoints variable to be a list of the breakpoints you want to debug, ordered by width. The name of the active breakpoint and its pixel and em values will then be shown in the top right corner of the viewport.

// Adapt the list to include breakpoint names from your project 
$mq-show-breakpoints: (phone, phablet, tablet);

$mq-show-breakpoints

Running tests

npm test

Generating the documentation

Sass MQ is documented using SassDoc.

Generate the documentation locally:

sassdoc .

Generate & deploy the documentation to https://mcaskill.github.io/sass-mq/:

npm run sassdoc

Inspired By…

On Mobile-first CSS With Legacy Browser Support

Install

npm i @mcaskill/sass-mq

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5.0.1

License

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