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1.8.1 • Public • Published

Serverless Nextjs Component


A zero configuration Nextjs 9.0 serverless component with full feature parity.

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Since Nextjs 8.0, serverless mode was introduced which provides a new low level API which projects like this can use to deploy onto different cloud providers. This project is a better version of the serverless plugin which focuses on addressing core issues like next 9 support, better development experience, the 200 CloudFormation resource limit and performance.

Design principles

  1. Zero configuration by default

There is no configuration needed. You can extend defaults based on your application needs.

  1. Feature parity with nextjs

Users of this component should be able to use nextjs development tooling, aka next dev. It is the component's job to deploy your application ensuring parity with all of next's features we know and love. Below you can find a list of the features that are currently supported.

  1. Fast deployments / no CloudFormation resource limits.

With a simplified architecture and no use of CloudFormation, there are no limits to how many pages you can have in your application, plus deployment times are very fast! with the exception of CloudFront propagation times of course.


Getting started

Add your next application to the serverless.yml:

# serverless.yml
  component: "@sls-next/serverless-component@{version_here}" # it is recommended you pin the latest stable version of serverless-next.js

Set your AWS credentials as environment variables:


And simply deploy:

$ serverless

🚫 Don't attempt to deploy by running serverless deploy, use only serverless

Custom domain name

In most cases you wouldn't want to use CloudFront's distribution domain to access your application. Instead, you can specify a custom domain name.

You can use any domain name but you must be using AWS Route53 for your DNS hosting. To migrate DNS records from an existing domain follow the instructions here. The requirements to use a custom domain name:

  • Route53 must include a hosted zone for your domain (e.g. mydomain.com) with a set of nameservers.
  • You must update the nameservers listed with your domain name registrar (e.g. namecheap, godaddy, etc.) with those provided for your new hosted zone.

The serverless next.js component will automatically generate an SSL certificate and create a new record to point to your CloudFront distribution.

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
    domain: "example.com" # sub-domain defaults to www

You can also configure a subdomain:

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
    domain: ["sub", "example.com"] # [ sub-domain, domain ]

Custom CloudFront configuration

To specify your own CloudFront inputs, just add any aws-cloudfront inputs under cloudfront:

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
      # this is the default cache behaviour of the cloudfront distribution
      # the origin-request edge lambda associated to this cache behaviour does the pages server side rendering
      # this is the cache behaviour for next.js api pages
        ttl: 10
      # you can set other cache behaviours like "defaults" above that can handle server side rendering
      # but more specific for a subset of your next.js pages
        ttl: 1000
          cookies: "all"
          queryString: false
        ttl: 3000
      # you can add custom origins to the cloudfront distribution
        - url: /static
              ttl: 10
        - url: https://old-static.com
              ttl: 10
      priceClass: "PriceClass_100"

This is particularly useful for caching any of your next.js pages at CloudFront's edge locations. See this for an example application with custom cache configuration.

Static pages caching

Statically rendered pages (i.e. HTML pages that are uploaded to S3) have the following Cache-Control set:

cache-control: public, max-age=0, s-maxage=2678400, must-revalidate

s-maxage allows Cloudfront to cache the pages at the edge locations for 31 days. max-age=0 in combination with must-revalidate ensure browsers never cache the static pages. This allows Cloudfront to be in full control of caching TTLs. On every deployment an invalidation/* is created to ensure users get fresh content.

Public directory caching

By default, common image formats(gif|jpe?g|jp2|tiff|png|webp|bmp|svg|ico) under /public or /static folders have a one-year Cache-Control policy applied(public, max-age=31536000, must-revalidate). You may customize either the Cache-Control header value and the regex of which files to test, with publicDirectoryCache:

  component: serverless-next.js
      value: public, max-age=604800
      test: /\.(gif|jpe?g|png|txt|xml)$/i

value must be a valid Cache-Control policy and test must be a valid regex of the types of files you wish to test. If you don't want browsers to cache assets from the public directory, you can disable this:

  component: serverless-next.js
    publicDirectoryCache: false

AWS Permissions

By default the Lambda@Edge functions run using AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole which only allows uploading logs to CloudWatch. If you need permissions beyond this, like for example access to DynamoDB or any other AWS resource you will need your own custom policy arn:

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
    policy: "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:policy/MyCustomPolicy"

Make sure you add CloudWatch log permissions to your custom policy.

The exhaustive list of AWS actions required for a deployment:

  "acm:DescribeCertificate", // only for custom domains
  "acm:ListCertificates",    // only for custom domains
  "acm:RequestCertificate",  // only for custom domains
  "lambda:DeleteFunction",            // only for custom domains
  "route53:ChangeResourceRecordSets", // only for custom domains
  "route53:ListResourceRecordSets",   // only for custom domains
  "s3:GetObject",                     // only if persisting state to S3 for CI/CD

Lambda At Edge Configuration

Both default and api edge lambdas will be assigned 512mb of memory by default. This value can be altered by assigning a number to the memory input

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
    memory: 1024

Values for default and api lambdas can be separately defined by assigning memory to an object like so:

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
      defaultLambda: 1024
      apiLambda: 2048

The same pattern can be followed for specifying the Node.js runtime (nodejs12.x by default):

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
      defaultLambda: "nodejs10.x"
      apiLambda: "nodejs10.x"

Similarly, the timeout by default is 10 seconds. To customise you can:

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
      defaultLambda: 20
      apiLambda: 15

Note the maximum timeout allowed for Lambda@Edge is 30 seconds. See https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/lambda-requirements-limits.html

You can also set a custom name for default and api lambdas - if not the default is set by the aws-lambda serverless component to the resource id:

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
      defaultLambda: fooDefaultLambda
      apiLambda: fooApiLambda



Four Cache Behaviours are created in CloudFront.

The first two _next/* and static/* forward the requests to S3.

The third is associated to a lambda function which is responsible for handling three types of requests.

  1. Server side rendered page. Any page that defines getInitialProps method will be rendered at this level and the response is returned immediately to the user.

  2. Statically optimised page. Requests to pages that were pre-compiled by next to HTML are forwarded to S3.

  3. Public resources. Requests to root level resources like /robots.txt, /favicon.ico, /manifest.json, etc. These are forwarded to S3.

The reason why 2. and 3. have to go through Lambda@Edge first is because the routes don't conform to a pattern like _next/* or static/*. Also, one cache behaviour per route is a bad idea because CloudFront only allows 25 per distribution.

The fourth cache behaviour handles next API requests api/*.


Name Type Default Value Description
domain Array null For example ['admin', 'portal.com']
bucketName string null Custom bucket name where static assets are stored. By default is autogenerated.
bucketRegion string null Region where you want to host your s3 bucket. Make sure this is geographically closer to the majority of your end users to reduce latency when CloudFront proxies a request to S3.
nextConfigDir string ./ Directory where your application next.config.js file is. This input is useful when the serverless.yml is not in the same directory as the next app.
Note: nextConfigDir should be set if next.config.js distDir is used
nextStaticDir string ./ If your static or public directory is not a direct child of nextConfigDir this is needed
description string *lambda-type*@Edge for Next CloudFront distribution The description that will be used for both lambdas. Note that "(API)" will be appended to the API lambda description.
policy string arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/service-role/AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole The arn policy that will be assigned to both lambdas.
runtime string\|object nodejs12.x When assigned a value, both the default and api lambdas will be assigned the runtime defined in the value. When assigned to an object, values for the default and api lambdas can be separately defined
memory number\|object 512 When assigned a number, both the default and api lambdas will be assigned memory of that value. When assigned to an object, values for the default and api lambdas can be separately defined
timeout number\|object 10 Same as above
name string\|object / When assigned a string, both the default and api lambdas will assigned name of that value. When assigned to an object, values for the default and api lambdas can be separately defined
build boolean\|object true When true builds and deploys app, when false assume the app has been built and uses the .next .serverless_nextjs directories in nextConfigDir to deploy. If an object is passed build allows for overriding what script gets called and with what arguments.
build.cmd string node_modules/.bin/next Build command
build.args Array\|string ['build'] Arguments to pass to the build
build.cwd string ./ Override the current working directory
build.enabled boolean true Same as passing build:false but from within the config
build.env object {} Add additional environment variables to the script
cloudfront object {} Inputs to be passed to aws-cloudfront
domainType string "both" Can be one of: "apex" - apex domain only, don't create a www subdomain. "www" - www domain only, don't create an apex subdomain."both" - create both www and apex domains when either one is provided.
publicDirectoryCache boolean\|object true Customize the public/static folder asset caching policy. Assigning an object with value and/or test lets you customize the caching policy and the types of files being cached. Assigning false disables caching
useServerlessTraceTarget boolean false Use the experimental-serverless-trace target to build your next app. This is the same build target that Vercel Now uses. See this RFC for details.
logLambdaExecutionTimes boolean false Logs to CloudWatch the default handler performance metrics.

Custom inputs can be configured like this:

  component: serverless-next.js
    bucketName: my-bucket


My component doesn't deploy

Make sure your serverless.yml uses the serverless-components format. serverless components differ from the original serverless framework, even though they are both accessible via the same CLI.


# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
  component: serverless/aws-dynamodb
    name: Customers
# other components

🚫 Don't

# serverless.yml
  name: aws
  runtime: nodejs10.x
  region: eu-west-1
  component: serverless-next.js
Resources: ...

Note how the correct yaml doesn't declare a provider, Resources, etc.

For deploying, don't run serverless deploy. Simply run serverless and that deploys your components declared in the serverless.yml file.

For more information about serverless components go here.

Should I use the serverless-plugin or this component?

Users are encouraged to use this component instead of the serverless-plugin. This component was built and designed using lessons learned from the serverless plugin.

How do I interact with other AWS Services within my app?

See examples/dynamodb-crud for an example Todo application that interacts with DynamoDB. You can find a full list of examples here

[CI/CD] A new CloudFront distribution is created on every CI build. I wasn't expecting that

You need to commit your application state in source control. That is the files under the .serverless directory. Alternatively you could use S3 to store the .serverless files, see an example here

The serverless team is currently working on remote state storage so this won't be necessary in the future.

My lambda is deployed to us-east-1. How can I deploy it to another region?

Serverless next.js is regionless. By design, serverless-next.js applications will be deployed across the globe to every CloudFront edge location. The lambda might look like is only deployed to us-east-1 but behind the scenes, it is replicated to every other region.

I require passing additional information into my build

See the sample below for an advanced build setup that includes passing additional arguments and environment variables to the build.

# serverless.yml
  component: serverless-next.js
    args: ["build", "custom/path/to/pages"]
      DATABASE_URL: ${myDatabase.databaseUrl}

I was expecting for automatic subdomain redirection when using the domainType: www/apex input

The redirection is not currently implemented, but there is a manual workaround outlined here. In summary, you will have to create a new S3 bucket and set it up with static website hosting to redirect requests to your supported subdomain type (ex. "www.example.com" or "example.com"). To be able to support HTTPS redirects, you'll need to set up a CloudFront distribution with the S3 redirect bucket as the origin. Finally, you'll need to create an "A" record in Route 53 with your newly created CloudFront distribution as the alias target.


Please see the contributing guide.


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